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Article

Analysis of Air Pollutant Emissions for Mechanized Rice Cultivation in Korea

by 1, 2, 2,3,4, 2,3,4 and 1,2,3,4,*
1
Department of Agricultural Convergence Technology, Graduate School, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea
2
Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Graduate School, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea
3
Department of Bioindustrial Machinery Engineering, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea
4
Institute for Agricultural Machinery & ICT Convergence, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luís Manuel Navas Gracia
Agriculture 2021, 11(12), 1208; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11121208
Received: 26 October 2021 / Revised: 14 November 2021 / Accepted: 27 November 2021 / Published: 1 December 2021
In Korea, rice is a major staple grain and it is mainly cultivated using various types of agricultural machinery. Air pollutants emitted from agricultural machinery have their origins mainly from the exhaustion of internal combustion engines. In this study, the emission characteristics of five main air pollutants by the European Environment Agency’s Tier 1 method for rice cultivation were analyzed. Diesel is a main fuel for agricultural machinery and gasoline is generally used only for rice transplanters as a fuel in Korea. Tractors consume 46% of total fuel consumption and 56% of diesel fuel consumption. Gasoline used for rice transplanters accounts for about 17% of the total fuel consumption each year. Tractors and rice transplanters emit 82% of all total pollutants. From 2011 to 2019, the total amount of air pollutant emissions decreased by 15%. That accounted for the reduction of rice cultivation fields in those periods. Rice transplanting operation accounts for 42% of total emissions. Then, harrowing, harvesting, tilling, leveling, and pest control operations generated 10%, 10%, 8%, 8%, and 7% of total emissions, respectively. The contribution of each air pollutant held 54% of CO, 39% of NOx, 5% of NMVOC, and 2% of TSP from the total emission inventory. The three major regions emitting air pollutants from mechanized agricultural practices were Jeollanam-do, Chungcheongnam-do, and Jeollabuk-do, which consume 55% of the total fuel usage in rice farming. The total amount of air pollutant emissions from rice cultivation practices in 2019 was calculated as 8448 tons in Korea. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollutant emissions; rice cultivation; agricultural machinery; tier 1 methodology; geographic information system air pollutant emissions; rice cultivation; agricultural machinery; tier 1 methodology; geographic information system
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MDPI and ACS Style

Han, G.-G.; Jeon, J.-H.; Cho, Y.-J.; Kim, M.-H.; Kim, S.-M. Analysis of Air Pollutant Emissions for Mechanized Rice Cultivation in Korea. Agriculture 2021, 11, 1208. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11121208

AMA Style

Han G-G, Jeon J-H, Cho Y-J, Kim M-H, Kim S-M. Analysis of Air Pollutant Emissions for Mechanized Rice Cultivation in Korea. Agriculture. 2021; 11(12):1208. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11121208

Chicago/Turabian Style

Han, Gyu-Gang, Jun-Hyuk Jeon, Yong-Jin Cho, Myoung-Ho Kim, and Seong-Min Kim. 2021. "Analysis of Air Pollutant Emissions for Mechanized Rice Cultivation in Korea" Agriculture 11, no. 12: 1208. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11121208

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