Soybean (Glycine max
(L.) Merr) is a source of high-quality edible protein and oil for humans, but also a high-quality feed in livestock feeding. In Poland, imported genetically modified soybean meal covers 65%, and leguminous seeds that are cultivated locally cover 11% of the protein requirement in livestock nutrition. The implementation of the Polish national program and the European strategy supporting the growth of the leguminous area resulted in adaptation to local agro-climatic conditions of 36 varieties of non-genetically modified soybean (n-GM), which achieved an average seed yield of about 3.7 t·ha−1
with a content of about 38% protein and 23% fat in dry matter. The 27-fold increase in n-GM soybean cultivation area observed over the past eight years resulted in the opportunities in the use of this high-protein feed in feeding cattle, the section providing 26% of gross agricultural production. In cattle feeding, soybean seeds are utilized as whole, cracked, roasted, and extruded full-fat seed; after oil pressing as cold press cakes and extruded oil cakes; and moreover, late-ripening soybean plants with late maturity are used as fodder plants. The presented review is based on literature and analysis of data on the use of each of these forms in cattle nutrition, including the limitation of their use as components of feed rations, which is caused by the high rate of nitrogen release in the rumen and the effects of fat and saponin on microbial fermentation in the rumen due to the role of endogenous seminal enzymes.
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