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Open AccessArticle

Ecological Risk Assessment of Soil Heavy Metals and Pesticide Residues in Tea Plantations

by Haifang He 1,2,†, Longqing Shi 1,2,3,†, Guang Yang 1,2,4, Minsheng You 1,2,4 and Liette Vasseur 1,2,5,*
1
State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Institute of Applied Ecology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
2
Joint International Research Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control, Ministry of Education, Fuzhou 350002, China
3
Institute of Rice, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chengmen, Cangshan, Fuzhou 350018, China
4
Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management for Fujian-Taiwan Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, Fuzhou 350002, China
5
Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, 1812 Sir Isaac Brock Way, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Contributed equally.
Agriculture 2020, 10(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10020047
Received: 23 December 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2020 / Accepted: 16 February 2020 / Published: 20 February 2020
Tea plantations have used many synthetic chemicals to ensure performance and control of pests. This has led to increased contamination of soils and reduced tea growth. We assessed the levels of heavy metals, including Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Hg, As, and pesticide residues, such as HCHs, biphenyl chrysanthemum ester, methamidophos, imidacloprid, permethrin, in the soil of tea plantations of Taiwan, Tibet, Guangdong, and Fujian. The Potential Ecological Risk Index and the Nemerow comprehensive pollution index were used to analyze the data. The results showed that risk indices in Tibet, Guangdong and Fuzhou were considered as moderate ecological harm level. Ecological risk assessment index of Anxi organic and Anxi conventional tea gardens suggested a “low” risk level. The Nemerow comprehensive pollution indices for soil pesticide residues in the tea plantations of Taiwan, Tibet, Anxi organic and Anxi conventional were considered mild. Guangdong and Fuzhou had values suggesting “slight pollution” levels. According to National Soil Environmental Quality Standard (GB15618-1995), soil in tea plantations in Taiwan, Tibet, and Anxi conventional matched the national first grade of soil quality and those from Guangdong, Fuzhou, and Anxi organic tea garden matched the national second grade. View Full-Text
Keywords: perennial crop; heavy metals; pesticides; soils; risk management; ecological risk; pollution perennial crop; heavy metals; pesticides; soils; risk management; ecological risk; pollution
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He, H.; Shi, L.; Yang, G.; You, M.; Vasseur, L. Ecological Risk Assessment of Soil Heavy Metals and Pesticide Residues in Tea Plantations. Agriculture 2020, 10, 47.

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