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Effects of Smoking and Smoking Cessation on the Intestinal Microbiota

Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53792, USA
Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, 47907, USA
Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Department of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Sciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 2963;
Received: 17 July 2020 / Revised: 9 September 2020 / Accepted: 10 September 2020 / Published: 14 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine)
We evaluated associations of smoking heaviness markers and the effects of smoking cessation on the intestinal microbiota and cardiovascular disease risk factors in current smokers undertaking a quit attempt. Participants were current smokers enrolled in a prospective randomized clinical trial of smoking cessation therapies with visits at baseline, 2, and 12 weeks. Genomic DNA was extracted from fecal samples followed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and analysis using the QIIME2 software workflow. Relative abundances of bacterial taxa and alpha- and beta-diversity measures were used for comparisons. The 36 smokers were (mean (standard deviation)) 51.5 (11.1) years old (42% male) and smoked 15.1 (6.4) cigarettes per day for 22.7 (11.9) pack-years. Relative abundances of the phylum Actinobacteria correlated with pack-years (rho = −0.44, p = 0.008) and Cyanobacteria correlated with CO levels (rho = 0.39, p = 0.021). After 12 weeks, relative abundances of the phylum Bacteroidetes increased (pANCOVA = 0.048) and Firmicutes decreased (pANCOVA = 0.036) among abstainers compared to continuing smokers. Increases in alpha-diversity were associated with heart rates (rho = −0.59, p = 0.037), systolic blood pressures (rho = −0.58, p = 0.043), and C-reactive protein (rho = −0.60, p = 0.034). Smoking cessation led to minor changes in the intestinal microbiota. It is unclear if the proven health benefits of smoking cessation lead to salutary changes in the intestinal microbiota. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiovascular disease; gut flora; microbiome; smoking; smoking cessation cardiovascular disease; gut flora; microbiome; smoking; smoking cessation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sublette, M.G.; Cross, T.-W.L.; Korcarz, C.E.; Hansen, K.M.; Murga-Garrido, S.M.; Hazen, S.L.; Wang, Z.; Oguss, M.K.; Rey, F.E.; Stein, J.H. Effects of Smoking and Smoking Cessation on the Intestinal Microbiota. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 2963.

AMA Style

Sublette MG, Cross T-WL, Korcarz CE, Hansen KM, Murga-Garrido SM, Hazen SL, Wang Z, Oguss MK, Rey FE, Stein JH. Effects of Smoking and Smoking Cessation on the Intestinal Microbiota. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(9):2963.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sublette, Marcus G., Tzu-Wen L. Cross, Claudia E. Korcarz, Kristin M. Hansen, Sofia M. Murga-Garrido, Stanley L. Hazen, Zeneng Wang, Madeline K. Oguss, Federico E. Rey, and James H. Stein 2020. "Effects of Smoking and Smoking Cessation on the Intestinal Microbiota" Journal of Clinical Medicine 9, no. 9: 2963.

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