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Open AccessReview

General Overview of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Opportunistic Pathogens: Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium abscessus

1
Graduate College of Biomedical Sciences, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766-1854, USA
2
Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766-1854, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(8), 2541; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082541
Received: 5 July 2020 / Revised: 2 August 2020 / Accepted: 4 August 2020 / Published: 6 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Mycobacterial Research)
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are emerging human pathogens, causing a wide range of clinical diseases affecting individuals who are immunocompromised and who have underlying health conditions. NTM are ubiquitous in the environment, with certain species causing opportunistic infection in humans, including Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium abscessus. The incidence and prevalence of NTM infections are rising globally, especially in developed countries with declining incidence rates of M. tuberculosis infection. Mycobacterium avium, a slow-growing mycobacterium, is associated with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections that can cause chronic pulmonary disease, disseminated disease, as well as lymphadenitis. M. abscessus infections are considered one of the most antibiotic-resistant mycobacteria and are associated with pulmonary disease, especially cystic fibrosis, as well as contaminated traumatic skin wounds, postsurgical soft tissue infections, and healthcare-associated infections (HAI). Clinical manifestations of diseases depend on the interaction of the host’s immune response and the specific mycobacterial species. This review will give a general overview of the general characteristics, vulnerable populations most at risk, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention for infections caused by Mycobacterium avium, in the context of MAC, and M. abscessus. View Full-Text
Keywords: Nontuberculous mycobacteria; Mycobacterium avium; Mycobacterium abscessus; Mycobacterium avium complex; M. tuberculosis; bronchiectasis; lymphadenitis; immunocompromised; Azithromycin; macrolides Nontuberculous mycobacteria; Mycobacterium avium; Mycobacterium abscessus; Mycobacterium avium complex; M. tuberculosis; bronchiectasis; lymphadenitis; immunocompromised; Azithromycin; macrolides
MDPI and ACS Style

To, K.; Cao, R.; Yegiazaryan, A.; Owens, J.; Venketaraman, V. General Overview of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Opportunistic Pathogens: Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium abscessus. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 2541. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082541

AMA Style

To K, Cao R, Yegiazaryan A, Owens J, Venketaraman V. General Overview of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Opportunistic Pathogens: Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium abscessus. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(8):2541. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082541

Chicago/Turabian Style

To, Kimberly; Cao, Ruoqiong; Yegiazaryan, Aram; Owens, James; Venketaraman, Vishwanath. 2020. "General Overview of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Opportunistic Pathogens: Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium abscessus" J. Clin. Med. 9, no. 8: 2541. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082541

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