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Open AccessReview

Endocrinopathies Associated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Cancer Treatment: A Review

1
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan
2
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(7), 2033; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072033
Received: 21 May 2020 / Revised: 15 June 2020 / Accepted: 25 June 2020 / Published: 29 June 2020
Treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors has shown efficacy against a variety of cancer types. The effects of nivolumab and pembrolizumab on lung cancer have been reported, and further therapeutic advances are ongoing. The side effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors are very different from those of conventional cytocidal anticancer drugs and molecular targeted drugs, and they involve various organs such as the digestive and respiratory organs, thyroid and pituitary glands, and skin. The generic term for such adverse events is immune-related adverse events (irAEs). They are relatively infrequent, and, if mild, treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors can be continued with careful control. However, early detection and appropriate treatment are critical, as moderate-to-severe irAEs are associated with markedly reduced organ function and quality of life, with fatal consequences in some cases. Of these, endocrinopathies caused by immune checkpoint inhibitors are sometimes difficult to distinguish from nonspecific symptoms in patients with advanced cancer and may have serious outcomes when the diagnosis is delayed. Therefore, it is necessary to anticipate and appropriately address the onset of endocrinopathies during treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Here, we present a review of endocrine disorders caused by immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: immune checkpoint inhibitors; immune-related adverse events; endocrine disorders; tumor-bearing patients immune checkpoint inhibitors; immune-related adverse events; endocrine disorders; tumor-bearing patients
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MDPI and ACS Style

Okura, N.; Asano, M.; Uchino, J.; Morimoto, Y.; Iwasaku, M.; Kaneko, Y.; Yamada, T.; Fukui, M.; Takayama, K. Endocrinopathies Associated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Cancer Treatment: A Review. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 2033.

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