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Open AccessArticle

Impact of Acute Hemoglobin Falls in Heart Failure Patients: A Population Study

1
Cardiovascular and Renal Research Group INCLIVA Research Institute University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
2
Internal Medicine Hospital Clínico de Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
3
Cardiology Hospital Clínico de Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
4
CIBERObn Carlos III Institute Madrid, 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1869; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061869
Received: 28 April 2020 / Revised: 9 June 2020 / Accepted: 11 June 2020 / Published: 15 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Management of Chronic Heart Failure and Hypertension)
Aims: This study assessed the impact of acute hemoglobin (Hb) falls in heart failure (HF) patients. Methods: HF patients with repeated Hb values over time were included. Falls in Hb greater than 30% were considered to represent an acute episode of anemia and the risk of hospitalization and all-cause mortality after the first episode was assessed. Results: In total, 45,437 HF patients (54.9% female, mean age 74.3 years) during a follow-up average of 2.9 years were analyzed. A total of 2892 (6.4%) patients had one episode of Hb falls, 139 (0.3%) had more than one episode, and 342 (0.8%) had concomitant acute kidney injury (AKI). Acute heart failure occurred in 4673 (10.3%) patients, representing 3.6/100 HF patients/year. The risk of hospitalization increased with one episode (Hazard Ratio = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19–1.43), two or more episodes (HR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.14–2.23, and concurrent AKI (HR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.27–2.03). A total of 10,490 patients have died, representing 8.1/100 HF patients/year. The risk of mortality was HR = 2.20 (95% CI 2.06–2.35) for one episode, HR = 3.14 (95% CI 2.48–3.97) for two or more episodes, and HR = 3.20 (95% CI 2.73–3.75) with AKI. In the two or more episodes and AKI groups, Hb levels at the baseline were significantly lower (10.2–11.4 g/dL) than in the no episodes group (12.8 g/dL), and a higher and significant mortality in these subgroups was observed. Conclusions: Hb falls in heart failure patients identified those with a worse prognosis requiring a more careful evaluation and follow-up. View Full-Text
Keywords: heart failure; anemia; blood loss; acute kidney injury; hospitalization; mortality heart failure; anemia; blood loss; acute kidney injury; hospitalization; mortality
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Lopez, C.; Holgado, J.L.; Fernandez, A.; Sauri, I.; Uso, R.; Trillo, J.L.; Vela, S.; Bea, C.; Nuñez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Gamez, J.; Ruiz, A.; Redon, J. Impact of Acute Hemoglobin Falls in Heart Failure Patients: A Population Study. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 1869.

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