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Present and Future of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

1
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, University of Padova, 35128 Padova, Italy
2
Human Anatomy Section, Department of Neurosciences, University of Padova, 35128 Padova, Italy
3
Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, University of Padova, 35128 Padova, Italy
4
Institute of Pediatric Research “Città della Speranza”, Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, University of Padova, 35128 Padova, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051539
Received: 15 April 2020 / Revised: 4 May 2020 / Accepted: 18 May 2020 / Published: 20 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Pulmonology)
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common respiratory disorder among infants born extremely preterm. The pathogenesis of BPD involves multiple prenatal and postnatal mechanisms affecting the development of a very immature lung. Their combined effects alter the lung’s morphogenesis, disrupt capillary gas exchange in the alveoli, and lead to the pathological and clinical features of BPD. The disorder is ultimately the result of an aberrant repair response to antenatal and postnatal injuries to the developing lungs. Neonatology has made huge advances in dealing with conditions related to prematurity, but efforts to prevent and treat BPD have so far been only partially effective. Seeing that BPD appears to have a role in the early origin of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, its prevention is pivotal also in long-term respiratory outcome of these patients. There is currently some evidence to support the use of antenatal glucocorticoids, surfactant therapy, protective noninvasive ventilation, targeted saturations, early caffeine treatment, vitamin A, and fluid restriction, but none of the existing strategies have had any significant impact in reducing the burden of BPD. New areas of research are raising novel therapeutic prospects, however. For instance, early topical (intratracheal or nebulized) steroids seem promising: they might help to limit BPD development without the side effects of systemic steroids. Evidence in favor of stem cell therapy has emerged from several preclinical trials, and from a couple of studies in humans. Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have revealed a reparatory capability, preventing the progression of BPD in animal models. Administering MSC-conditioned media containing extracellular vesicles (EVs) have also demonstrated a preventive action, without the potential risks associated with unwanted engraftment or the adverse effects of administering cells. In this paper, we explore these emerging treatments and take a look at the revolutionary changes in BPD and neonatology on the horizon. View Full-Text
Keywords: bronchopulmonary dysplasia; extracellular vesicles; mesenchymal stem cells; mesenchymal stromal cells; neonatal ICU bronchopulmonary dysplasia; extracellular vesicles; mesenchymal stem cells; mesenchymal stromal cells; neonatal ICU
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bonadies, L.; Zaramella, P.; Porzionato, A.; Perilongo, G.; Muraca, M.; Baraldi, E. Present and Future of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 1539.

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