Saharan Dust Events in the Dust Belt -Canary Islands- and the Observed Association with in-Hospital Mortality of Patients with Heart Failure
Department of Cardiology, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, 38320 La Cuesta, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Europea de Canarias, Calle Inocencio García 1, 38300 La Orotava, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Cardiovaculares (CIBERCV), 28029 Madrid, Spain
Experimental Stations of Arid Zones, EEZA CSIC, Carretera del Sacramento, 04120 La Cañada de San Urbano, Almería, Spain
Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiología, IPNA CSIC, Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sánchez 3, La Laguna 38206, Tenerife, Spain
Department of Cardiology, Central University Hospital of Asturias, Avenida de Roma, 33011 Oviedo, Spain
Department of Medicine, University of Oviedo, Julián Clavería 6, Campus del Cristo, 33006 Oviedo, Spain
Health Research Institute of the Principality of Asturias, Avenida de Roma, 33011 Oviedo, Spain
Department of Basic Medical Sciences, University of La Laguna, Santa María Soledad, 38200 La Cuesta, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
SDS-WAS Regional Centre, AEMET, Arquitecte Sert 1, 08005 Barcelona, Spain
Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre, AEMET, La Marina 20, 38001 Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
Barcelona Supercomputing Centre, Jordi Girona 29-31, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors share first authorship.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(2), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020376
Received: 21 December 2019 / Revised: 22 January 2020 / Accepted: 24 January 2020 / Published: 30 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology & Public Health)
Recent studies have found increases in the cardiovascular mortality rates during poor air quality events due to outbreaks of desert dust. In Tenerife, we collected (2014–2017) data in 829 patients admitted with a heart failure diagnosis in the Emergency Department of the University Hospital of the Canaries. In this region, concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 are usually low (~20 and 10 µg/m3), but they increase to 360 and 115 μg/m3, respectively, during Saharan dust events. By using statistical tools (including multivariable logistic regressions), we compared in-hospital mortality of patients with heart failure and exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 during dust and no-dust events. We found that 86% of in-hospital heart failure mortality cases occurred during Saharan dust episodes that resulted in PM10 > 50 µg/m3 (interquartile range: 71–96 µg/m3). A multivariate analysis showed that, after adjusting for other covariates, exposure to Saharan dust events associated with PM10 > 50 µg/m3 was an independent predictor of heart failure in-hospital mortality (OR = 2.79, 95% CI (1.066–7.332), p = 0.03). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exposure to high Saharan dust concentrations is independently associated with in-hospital mortality in patients with heart failure.