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Article

What Is the Diagnosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Who Have a Painful Shoulder? Results from a Prospective Cross-Sectional Study

1
Department of Family Medicine, CAPHRI Care and Public Health Research Institute, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
2
Ministry of Education, Riyadh 12435, Saudi Arabia
3
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Catholic University of Leuven, Kapucijnenvoer 33, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium
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Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Donders Institute for Brain Cognition and Behaviour, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
5
Department of Radiology, Zuyderland Medical Centre, 6162 BG Sittard-Geleen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(12), 4097; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9124097
Received: 24 November 2020 / Revised: 10 December 2020 / Accepted: 15 December 2020 / Published: 18 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Musculoskeletal Disorders)
Background: Patients with diabetes mellitus have higher risk of developing shoulder pathology. However, only adhesive capsulitis is addressed in shoulder pain guidelines as a disorder associated with diabetes. Yet, patients with diabetes are at risk of having several other shoulder disorders, including focal neuropathy. Our aim was to quantify the presence of shoulder disorders using physical examination and ultrasound imaging in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) suffering from shoulder pain in general practice. Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, patients with T2DM who had had a painful shoulder for at least four weeks were included. Patients filled out a questionnaire and underwent a physical examination of the shoulders and feet and ultrasound imaging of the shoulder. Results: A total of 66 patients were included, of whom 40.9% (n = 27) had bilateral complaints resulting in 93 symptomatic shoulders. Subacromial pain syndrome was most frequently diagnosed by physical examination (66.6%, 95% CI 51.6–72.0%; p < 0.0001), while ultrasound imaging showed that subacromial disorders were statistically significantly the most prevalent (90.3%, 95% CI 81.9–95.2%). Only two patients (3%) were diagnosed with neuropathic shoulder pain. Conclusion: When choosing treatment, general practitioners should be aware that in patients with T2DM the subacromial region is most frequently affected. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 2 diabetes; physical examination; diagnosis; ultrasound; shoulder pain; adhesive capsulitis; subacromial pain syndrome type 2 diabetes; physical examination; diagnosis; ultrasound; shoulder pain; adhesive capsulitis; subacromial pain syndrome
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alabdali, L.A.S.; Jaeken, J.; van Alfen, N.; Dinant, G.-J.; Borghans, R.A.P.; Ottenheijm, R.P.G. What Is the Diagnosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Who Have a Painful Shoulder? Results from a Prospective Cross-Sectional Study. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 4097. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9124097

AMA Style

Alabdali LAS, Jaeken J, van Alfen N, Dinant G-J, Borghans RAP, Ottenheijm RPG. What Is the Diagnosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Who Have a Painful Shoulder? Results from a Prospective Cross-Sectional Study. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(12):4097. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9124097

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alabdali, Login A.S., Jasmien Jaeken, Nens van Alfen, Geert-Jan Dinant, Rob A.P. Borghans, and Ramon P.G. Ottenheijm 2020. "What Is the Diagnosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Who Have a Painful Shoulder? Results from a Prospective Cross-Sectional Study" Journal of Clinical Medicine 9, no. 12: 4097. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9124097

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