Background: The origin of femoral maltorsion is often unknown. However, defining the origin of the rotation of the femoral maltorsion can be useful for establishing the most suitable point to do an external derotational osteotomy. Previous studies have not considered the femoral diaphysis in their investigations of the origin of the deformity. The study of the whole morphology of the femur with 3D volumetric tools, including the femoral diaphysis can contribute to a better understanding of the behavior of femoral maltorsion. Methods: An atypical case of unilateral femoral anteversion was selected. Both femurs were used to obtain 3D bio-models. The mirror image of the asymptomatic side was obtained and overlapped with the symptomatic femur. The Hausdorff–Besicovitch method was used to evaluate the morphologic discrepancies (in mm) between the two femurs in three zones: (1) the femoral neck, (2) the proximal diaphysis, and (3) the distal diaphysis. The differences between the two femurs were analyzed and its correlation was statistically defined using a lineal regression model. Results: The deformity in the distal diaphysis increased from the supracondylar area until the apex of the antecurvatum angle (R2
= 0.91) and then decreased until the base of the femoral neck (R2
= (−0.83)), to finally increase significantly in the femoral neck area (R2
= 0.87). All of the correlations were statistically significant (p-
value ˂ 0.001). Conclusion: The femoral maltorsion originates in the supracondylar area and its rotational axis is the longitudinal axis of the femoral diaphysis. Even though the deformity affects the femoral diaphysis, its clinical relevance is much higher in the femoral neck since the rotational axis passes through its base. Thus, the osteotomy can be conducted along all of the femoral diaphysis as long as it is done perpendicular to it.
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