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Open AccessArticle

Why Methodology Is Important: Coffee as a Candidate Treatment for COVID-19?

1
INSERM, Bordeaux Population Health Research Center, ISPED, University of Bordeaux, 33000 Bordeaux, France
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Department of Neurosurgery, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, 33000 Bordeaux, France
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IAME, INSERM, Université de Paris, F-75006 Paris, France
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Service de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, AP-HP Hôpital Bichat, F-75018 Paris, France
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National Institute for Health Research, Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK
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Service de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, CHU Poitiers, 86000 Poitiers, France
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INSERM CIC1401, Clinical and Epidemiological Research Unit, Institut Bergonié, 33000 Bordeaux, France
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INSERM U1070, University of Poitiers, 86000 Poitiers, France
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Assistance Publique—Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpitaux Universitaires Pitié-Salpêtrière Charles Foix, Infectious Diseases Department, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, 47–83 Boulevard de l’hôpital, 75013 Paris, France
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INSERM, Institut Pierre Louis d’Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique, Sorbonne University, 75013 Paris, France
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COVID SMIT PSL STUDY GROUP Infectious Diseases Department, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, 47-83 Boulevard de l’hôpital, 75013 Paris, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(11), 3691; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113691
Received: 12 October 2020 / Revised: 5 November 2020 / Accepted: 11 November 2020 / Published: 17 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Diseases)
Background: During this pandemic situation, some studies have led to hasty conclusions about Corona Virus Disease-19 (COVID-19) treatment, due to a lack of methodology. This pedagogic study aimed to highlight potential biases in research on COVID-19 treatment. Methods: We evaluate the effect of coffee’s active part, 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (TMX) on patients with COVID-19. A cohort of 93 patients, with a diagnosis of COVID-19 is analyzed. Results: TMX group and control group included, respectively, 26 and 67 patients. In the TMX group, patients had a median length of stay in hospital of 5.5 days shorter than in the control group (9.5 vs. 15 days, p < 0.05). Patients in the control group were more severe than patients in the TMX group with a significantly higher National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS-2 score) (8 vs. 6, p = 0.002). Conclusions: Multiple biases prevents us from concluding to an effect of coffee on COVID-19. Despite an important social pressure during this crisis, methodology and conscientiousness are the best way to avoid hasty conclusions that can be deleterious for patients. Identifier: NCT04395742. View Full-Text
Keywords: coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); current therapies; symptomatic treatment; trimethylxanthine; methodology coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); current therapies; symptomatic treatment; trimethylxanthine; methodology
MDPI and ACS Style

Belaroussi, Y.; Roblot, P.; Peiffer-Smadja, N.; Delaye, T.; Mathoulin-Pelissier, S.; Lemeux, J.; Le Moal, G.; Caumes, E.; Roblot, F.; Bleibtreu, A. Why Methodology Is Important: Coffee as a Candidate Treatment for COVID-19? J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 3691.

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