Next Article in Journal
The Hidden Factor—Low Quality of Data is a Major Peril in the Identification of Risk Factors for COVID-19 Deaths: A Comment on Nogueira, P.J., et al. “The Role of Health Preconditions on COVID-19 Deaths in Portugal: Evidence from Surveillance Data of the First 20293 Infection Cases”. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 2368
Previous Article in Journal
Addendum: MacDonald, A.M., et al. CaRE @ Home: Pilot Study of an Online Multidimensional Cancer Rehabilitation and Exercise Program for Cancer Survivors. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 3092
Article

COVID-19 and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome: A Systematic Review of 104 Cases

1
Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
2
Division of Urology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
3
Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Center for Neurogenetics and the Genetics Institute, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
4
Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea
5
Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Dr. Antoni Pujadas, 42, Sant Boi de Llobregat, 08830 Barcelona, Spain
6
ICREA, Pg. Lluis Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Spain
7
Department of Internal Medicine IV, Nephrology and Hypertension, Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
8
Faculty of Medicine, University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, 78180 Versailles, France
9
The Cambridge Centre for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge CB1 1PT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(11), 3441; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113441
Received: 1 September 2020 / Revised: 28 September 2020 / Accepted: 29 September 2020 / Published: 26 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Diseases)
(1) Background: Until now, several reports about pregnant women with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been published. However, there are no comprehensive systematic reviews collecting all case series studies on data regarding adverse pregnancy outcomes, especially association with treatment modalities. (2) Objective: We aimed to synthesize the most up-to-date and relevant available evidence on the outcomes of pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed infection with COVID-19. (3) Methods: PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE, Google scholar, and Embase were explored for studies and papers regarding pregnant women with COVID-19, including obstetrical, perinatal, and neonatal outcomes and complications published from 1 January 2020 to 4 May 2020. Systematic review and search of the published literature was done using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). (4) Results: In total, 11 case series studies comprising 104 pregnant women with COVID-19 were included in our review. Fever (58.6%) and cough (30.7%) were the most common symptoms. Other symptoms included dyspnea (14.4%), chest discomfort (3.9%), sputum production (1.0%), sore throat (2.9%), and nasal obstruction (1.0%). Fifty-two patients (50.0%) eventually demonstrated abnormal chest CT, and of those with ground glass opacity (GGO), 23 (22.1%) were bilateral and 10 (9.6%) were unilateral. The most common treatment for COVID-19 was administration of antibiotics (25.9%) followed by antivirals (17.3%). Cesarean section was the mode of delivery for half of the women (50.0%), although no information was available for 28.8% of the cases. Regarding obstetrical and neonatal outcomes, fetal distress (13.5%), pre-labor rupture of membranes (9.6%), prematurity (8.7%), fetal death (4.8%), and abortion (2.9%) were reported. There are no positive results of neonatal infection by RT-PCR. (5) Conclusions: Although we have found that pregnancy with COVID-19 has significantly higher maternal mortality ratio compared to that of pregnancy without the disease, the evidence is too weak to state that COVID-19 results in poorer maternal outcome due to multiple factors. The number of COVID-19 pregnancy outcomes was not large enough to draw a conclusion and long-term outcomes are yet to be determined as the pandemic is still unfolding. Active and intensive follow-up is needed in order to provide robust data for future studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: coronavirus disease 2019; pregnancy; COVID-19; fetal death; neonatal outcomes; preterm birth; SARS-CoV-2; stillbirth; maternal morbidity; maternal mortality; neonatal morbidity; neonatal mortality coronavirus disease 2019; pregnancy; COVID-19; fetal death; neonatal outcomes; preterm birth; SARS-CoV-2; stillbirth; maternal morbidity; maternal mortality; neonatal morbidity; neonatal mortality
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Abou Ghayda, R.; Li, H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, H.W.; Hong, S.H.; Kwak, M.; Lee, M.; Kwon, M.; Koyanagi, A.; Kronbichler, A.; Jacob, L.; Smith, L.; Shin, J.I. COVID-19 and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome: A Systematic Review of 104 Cases. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 3441. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113441

AMA Style

Abou Ghayda R, Li H, Lee KH, Lee HW, Hong SH, Kwak M, Lee M, Kwon M, Koyanagi A, Kronbichler A, Jacob L, Smith L, Shin JI. COVID-19 and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome: A Systematic Review of 104 Cases. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(11):3441. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113441

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abou Ghayda, Ramy, Han Li, Keum H. Lee, Hee W. Lee, Sung H. Hong, Moonsu Kwak, Minwoo Lee, Minjae Kwon, Ai Koyanagi, Andreas Kronbichler, Louis Jacob, Lee Smith, and Jae I. Shin 2020. "COVID-19 and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome: A Systematic Review of 104 Cases" Journal of Clinical Medicine 9, no. 11: 3441. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113441

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop