Background: It has been reported that women have a higher number of heart attacks in the “follicular phase” of the menstrual cycle. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that women in the follicular phase exhibit higher coagulability. As lower body negative pressure (LBNP) has been used previously to assess coagulation changes in whole blood (WB) samples in men and women, effects of menstrual phase on coagulation was assessed during LBNP. Methods: Seven women, all healthy young participants, with no histories of thrombotic disorders and not on medications, were tested in two phases of the menstrual cycle (early follicular (EF) and mid-luteal (ML)). LBNP was commenced at −10 mmHg and increased by −10 mmHg every 5 min until a maximum of −40 mmHg. Recovery up to 10 min was also monitored. Blood samples were collected at baseline, at end of LBNP, and at end of recovery. Hemostatic profiling included comparing the effects of LBNP on coagulation values in both phases of the menstrual cycle using standard coagulation tests, calibrated automated thrombogram, thrombelastometry, impedance aggregometry, and markers of thrombin formation. Results: LBNP led to coagulation activation determined in both plasma and WB samples. During both phases, coagulation was affected during LBNP, as reflected in their decreased partial thromboplastin time (PTT) and elevated coagulation factor VIII FVIII, F1 + 2, and thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) levels. Additionally, during the ML phase, greater PT [%] and shorter time to peak (ttPeak) values (implying faster maximum thrombin formation) suggest that women in the ML phase are relatively hypercoagulable compared to the early follicular phase. Conclusions: These results suggest that thrombosis occurs more during the midluteal phase, a finding with substantial medical implications.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited