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Article

Ghrelin Derangements in Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Impact of Myocardial Disease Duration and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

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Cardiovascular Department, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Integrata di Trieste and Department of Medical Surgical and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, 34149 Trieste, Italy
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Department of Medicine (DAME), University of Udine, 33100 Udine, Italy
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Sport and Exercise Medicine Division, Department of Medicine, University of Padova, 35122 Padova, Italy
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Biostatistics Unit, Department of Medical Surgical and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, 34149 Trieste, Italy
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Unique Laboratory of Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Integrata di Trieste, Burlo, Gorizia and Monfalcone, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria di Trieste, 34125 Trieste, Italy
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Unit of Clinica Medica Generale e Terapia Medica, Department of Medical Surgical and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, 34149 Trieste, Italy
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Institute for Maternal and Child Health–IRCCS “Burlo Garofolo”, 34137 Trieste, Italy
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Linda Joy Pollin Cardiovascular Wellness Center for Women, Heart Institute, Hadassah University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel
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Department of Human Nutrition and Metabolism, School of Public Health Medical Faculty, Jerusalem 91120, Israel
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Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Department of Clinical Sciences, 20138 Milan, Italy
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Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
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Institute for Maternal and Child Health–IRCCS “Burlo Garofolo” Trieste and University of Trieste, 34137 Trieste, Italy
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Department of Medicine (DAME), University of Udine, and Cardiothoracic Department, University-Hospital Santa Maria della Misericordia, 33100 Udine, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(8), 1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8081152
Received: 12 June 2019 / Revised: 29 July 2019 / Accepted: 31 July 2019 / Published: 1 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Metabolic Mechanisms of Cardiomyopathy)
Background: Ghrelin may exert positive effects on cardiac structure and function in heart failure (HF) patients. Methods: We assessed ghrelin levels in 266 dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients and in 200 age, gender and body mass index (BMI) matched controls. Further, we evaluated the expression of ghrelin and growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHSR) in the myocardium of 41 DCM patients and in 11 controls. Results: DCM patients had significantly lower levels of total, acylated and unacylated ghrelin when compared to controls (p < 0.05 for all). In controls, we observed a negative correlation of ghrelin with age, male gender and BMI. These correlations were lost in the DCM group, except for male gender. Total ghrelin was higher in patients with more recent diagnosis when compared to patients with longer duration of the DCM (p = 0.033). Further, total ghrelin was higher in patients with lower left ventricular systolic function (<40% LVEF, vs. 40% ≤ LVEF < 49% vs. LVEF ≥ 50%: 480.8, vs. 429.7, vs. 329.5 pg/mL, respectively, p = 0.05). Ghrelin prepropeptide was expressed more in DCM patients than in controls (p = 0.0293) while GHSR was expressed less in DCM patients (p < 0.001). Furthermore, ghrelin showed an inverse correlation with its receptor (ρ = −0.406, p = 0.009), and this receptor showed a significant inverse correlation with Interleukin-1β (ρ = −0.422, p = 0.0103). Conclusion: DCM duration and severity are accompanied by alterations in the ghrelin–GHSR system. View Full-Text
Keywords: idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy; heart failure; ghrelin; GHS-receptor; cardiomyopathies; outcome; biomarkers idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy; heart failure; ghrelin; GHS-receptor; cardiomyopathies; outcome; biomarkers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aleksova, A.; Beltrami, A.P.; Bevilacqua, E.; Padoan, L.; Santon, D.; Biondi, F.; Barbati, G.; Stenner, E.; Gortan Cappellari, G.; Barazzoni, R.; Ziberna, F.; Zwas, D.R.; Avraham, Y.; Agostoni, P.; Not, T.; Livi, U.; Sinagra, G. Ghrelin Derangements in Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Impact of Myocardial Disease Duration and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 1152. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8081152

AMA Style

Aleksova A, Beltrami AP, Bevilacqua E, Padoan L, Santon D, Biondi F, Barbati G, Stenner E, Gortan Cappellari G, Barazzoni R, Ziberna F, Zwas DR, Avraham Y, Agostoni P, Not T, Livi U, Sinagra G. Ghrelin Derangements in Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Impact of Myocardial Disease Duration and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019; 8(8):1152. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8081152

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aleksova, Aneta, Antonio P. Beltrami, Elisa Bevilacqua, Laura Padoan, Daniela Santon, Federico Biondi, Giulia Barbati, Elisabetta Stenner, Gianluca Gortan Cappellari, Rocco Barazzoni, Fabiana Ziberna, Donna R. Zwas, Yosefa Avraham, Piergiuseppe Agostoni, Tarcisio Not, Ugolino Livi, and Gianfranco Sinagra. 2019. "Ghrelin Derangements in Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Impact of Myocardial Disease Duration and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction" Journal of Clinical Medicine 8, no. 8: 1152. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8081152

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