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Assessing Developmental Environmental Risk Factor Exposure in Clinical High Risk for Psychosis Individuals: Preliminary Results Using the Individual and Structural Exposure to Stress in Psychosis-Risk States Scale

1
Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
2
Department of Psychology, Department of Psychiatry, Department of Medical Social Sciences, Institute for Innovations in Developmental Sciences, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(7), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8070994
Received: 1 July 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Relationships between Trauma and Psychosis)
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Abstract

Introduction: Exposure to cumulative environmental risk factors across development has been linked to a host of adverse health/functional outcomes. This perspective incorporating information regarding exposure at differing developmental periods is lacking in research surrounding individuals at Clinical High Risk (CHR) for developing a psychotic disorder. Methods: CHR individuals (n = 35) and healthy volunteers (n = 28) completed structured clinical interviews as well as our group’s newly developed Individual and Structural Exposure to Stress in Psychosis-risk-states (ISESP) interview. Lifetime cumulative scores were calculated, and severity of stress was reported for multiple developmental periods/ages. Group differences were tested, and associations with current symptom domains were examined. Results: Significant group differences were not observed for lifetime cumulative events, though CHR trended toward endorsing more events and greater stress severity. For stress severity across development, there were trending group differences for the 11–13 age range, and significant group differences for the 14–18 age range; notably, comparisons for earlier time points did not approach statistical significance. Associations between negative symptoms and cumulative severity of exposure were observed. Discussion: Results suggest exploring exposure to cumulative environmental risk factors/stressors and stress severity across developmental periods is generally informative and possibly specifically so for predictive models and diathesis-stress psychosis risk conceptualizations. View Full-Text
Keywords: development; chronic stress; environmental stress; cumulative environmental risk factors; environmental risk factors; clinical high risk; psychosis; developmental stress development; chronic stress; environmental stress; cumulative environmental risk factors; environmental risk factors; clinical high risk; psychosis; developmental stress
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Vargas, T.; Zou, D.S.; Conley, R.E.; Mittal, V.A. Assessing Developmental Environmental Risk Factor Exposure in Clinical High Risk for Psychosis Individuals: Preliminary Results Using the Individual and Structural Exposure to Stress in Psychosis-Risk States Scale. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 994.

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