Next Article in Journal
Addiction as Learned Behavior Patterns
Next Article in Special Issue
Inflammation as a Therapeutic Target in Atherosclerosis
Previous Article in Journal
Silent Myocardial Perfusion Abnormalities Detected by Stress Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Antiphospholipid Syndrome: A Case-Control Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Arterial Lymphatics in Atherosclerosis: Old Questions, New Insights, and Remaining Challenges
Open AccessReview

The Future of Lipid-Lowering Therapy

Department of Pediatrics, Section Molecular Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, 9713 Groningen, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(7), 1085;
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 19 July 2019 / Accepted: 22 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Developing Novel Therapies to Prevent Atherosclerosis)
The recent introduction of inhibitors of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 to lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol on top of statins or as monotherapy is rapidly changing the landscape of treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, existing lipid-lowering drugs have little impact on lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) or plasma triglycerides, two other risk factors for ASCVD. This review summarizes the evidence and the rationale to target Lp(a) and triglycerides and provides an overview of currently tested strategies to lower Lp(a), apolipoprotein C-III and angiopoietin-like protein 3. In addition, it summarizes new findings on the use of omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FA) to fight ASCVD. With the exception of OM3FA supplementation, the promise of the experimental drugs discussed here depends on the long-term safety and efficacy of monoclonal antibodies and/or antisense oligonucleotides Clinical outcome trials will ultimately prove whether these new therapeutic modalities will reduce ASCVD risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; residual risk; plasma lipids; Lp(a); Angptl3; ApoC-III; Omega 3 fatty acids atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; residual risk; plasma lipids; Lp(a); Angptl3; ApoC-III; Omega 3 fatty acids
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

van Zwol, W.; Rimbert, A.; Kuivenhoven, J.A. The Future of Lipid-Lowering Therapy. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 1085.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop