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Open AccessArticle

Motor Adaptation Impairment in Chronic Cannabis Users Assessed by a Visuomotor Rotation Task

1
SPECS lab, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08002 Barcelona, Spain
2
GRAC, Grup de Recerca en addiccions clínic, Villarroel, 170 08036 Barcelona, Spain
3
IDIBAPS, Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Villarroel, 170 08036 Barcelona, Spain
4
IBEC, Institute for Biomedical Engineering of Catalonia, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
5
ICREA, Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Passeig Lluís Companys, 08010 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally as the first authorship.
These authors contributed equally as the last authorship.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(7), 1049; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8071049
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 14 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment & Treatment of Addictions: New Tools for Old Problems)
Background—The cerebellum has been recently suggested as an important player in the addiction brain circuit. Cannabis is one of the most used drugs worldwide, and its long-term effects on the central nervous system are not fully understood. No valid clinical evaluations of cannabis impact on the brain are available today. The cerebellum is expected to be one of the brain structures that are highly affected by prolonged exposure to cannabis, due to its high density in endocannabinoid receptors. We aim to use a motor adaptation paradigm to indirectly assess cerebellar function in chronic cannabis users (CCUs). Methods—We used a visuomotor rotation (VMR) task that probes a putatively-cerebellar implicit motor adaptation process together with the learning and execution of an explicit aiming rule. We conducted a case-control study, recruiting 18 CCUs and 18 age-matched healthy controls. Our main measure was the angular aiming error. Results—Our results show that CCUs have impaired implicit motor adaptation, as they showed a smaller rate of adaptation compared with healthy controls (drift rate: 19.3 +/− 6.8° vs. 27.4 +/− 11.6°; t(26) = −2.1, p = 0.048, Cohen’s d = −0.8, 95% CI = (−1.7, −0.15)). Conclusions—We suggest that a visuomotor rotation task might be the first step towards developing a useful tool for the detection of alterations in implicit learning among cannabis users. View Full-Text
Keywords: cerebellum; cannabis; implicit motor learning; motor adaptation; visuomotor rotation cerebellum; cannabis; implicit motor learning; motor adaptation; visuomotor rotation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Herreros, I.; Miquel, L.; Blithikioti, C.; Nuño, L.; Rubio Ballester, B.; Grechuta, K.; Gual, A.; Balcells-Oliveró, M.; Verschure, P. Motor Adaptation Impairment in Chronic Cannabis Users Assessed by a Visuomotor Rotation Task. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 1049. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8071049

AMA Style

Herreros I, Miquel L, Blithikioti C, Nuño L, Rubio Ballester B, Grechuta K, Gual A, Balcells-Oliveró M, Verschure P. Motor Adaptation Impairment in Chronic Cannabis Users Assessed by a Visuomotor Rotation Task. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019; 8(7):1049. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8071049

Chicago/Turabian Style

Herreros, Ivan; Miquel, Laia; Blithikioti, Chrysanthi; Nuño, Laura; Rubio Ballester, Belen; Grechuta, Klaudia; Gual, Antoni; Balcells-Oliveró, Mercè; Verschure, Paul. 2019. "Motor Adaptation Impairment in Chronic Cannabis Users Assessed by a Visuomotor Rotation Task" J. Clin. Med. 8, no. 7: 1049. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8071049

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