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Emerging Roles of Sestrins in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Counteracting Oxidative Stress and Beyond

by 1,2,†, 2,†, 1,3 and 4,5,6,*
1
Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung City 83301, Taiwan
2
Institute for Translation Research in Biomedicine; Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung City 83301, Taiwan
3
College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan City 33302, Taiwan
4
Institute of Brain Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan
5
Brain Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan
6
Taipei City Hospital, Taipei 10629, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Contributed equally to this work.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(7), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8071001
Received: 6 June 2019 / Revised: 1 July 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
Low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical for the operation of regular neuronal function. However, heightened oxidative stress with increased contents of oxidation markers in DNA, lipids, and proteins with compromised antioxidant capacity may play a harmful role in the brain and may be implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. Sestrins, a family of evolutionarily-conserved stress-inducible proteins, are actively regulated by assorted stresses, such as DNA damage, hypoxia, and oxidative stress. Three highly homologous genes that encode sestrin1, sestrin2, and sestrin3 proteins exist in the genomes of vertebrates. Under stressful conditions, sestrins are activated with versatile functions to cope with different types of stimuli. A growing body of evidence suggests that sestrins, especially sestrin2, can counteract oxidative stress, lessen mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression, and promote cell survival, thereby playing a critical role in aging-related disorders including neurodegeneration. Strategies capable of augmenting sestrin expression may; thus, facilitate cell adaptation to stressful conditions or environments through stimulation of antioxidant response and autophagy process, which may carry clinical significance in neurodegenerative diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: sestrins; oxidative stress; mTOR; autophagy; neurodegenerative diseases sestrins; oxidative stress; mTOR; autophagy; neurodegenerative diseases
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, S.-D.; Yang, J.-L.; Lin, T.-K.; Yang, D.-I. Emerging Roles of Sestrins in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Counteracting Oxidative Stress and Beyond. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 1001. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8071001

AMA Style

Chen S-D, Yang J-L, Lin T-K, Yang D-I. Emerging Roles of Sestrins in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Counteracting Oxidative Stress and Beyond. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019; 8(7):1001. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8071001

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Shang-Der; Yang, Jenq-Lin; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Yang, Ding-I. 2019. "Emerging Roles of Sestrins in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Counteracting Oxidative Stress and Beyond" J. Clin. Med. 8, no. 7: 1001. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8071001

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