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Open AccessArticle

Investigation of the Proportion of Diagnosed People Living with HIV/AIDS among Foreign Residents in Japan

1
Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 15 Jo Nishi 7 Chome, Kita-ku, Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido 060-8638, Japan
2
CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Honcho 4-1-8, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan
3
Department of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(6), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8060804
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 29 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology & Public Health)
Foreign residents represent an increasing proportion of newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases in Japan, though scant research has addressed this. This study aimed to estimate the diagnosed proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) among foreign residents in Japan, covering 1990–2017 and stratifying by geographic region of the country of origin. A balance equation model was employed to statistically estimate the diagnosed proportion as a single parameter. This used published estimates of HIV incidence and prevalence, population size, visit duration, travel volume, as well as surveillance data on HIV/AIDS in Japan. The proportion varied widely by region: People from Western Europe, East Asia and the Pacific, Australia and New Zealand, and North America were underdiagnosed, while those from sub-Saharan Africa, South and South-East Asia, and Latin America were more frequently diagnosed. Overall, the diagnosed proportion of PLWHA among foreign residents in Japan has increased, but the latest estimate in 2017 was as low as 55.3%; lower than the estimate among Japanese on the order of 80% and far below the quoted goal of 90%. This finding indicates a critical need to investigate the underlying mechanisms, including disparate access to HIV testing. View Full-Text
Keywords: epidemiology; foreigner; travel; migration; mobile men with money; importation; test-and-treat; laboratory diagnosis; antiretroviral therapy; treatment as prevention epidemiology; foreigner; travel; migration; mobile men with money; importation; test-and-treat; laboratory diagnosis; antiretroviral therapy; treatment as prevention
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Shimizu, K.; Nishiura, H.; Imamura, A. Investigation of the Proportion of Diagnosed People Living with HIV/AIDS among Foreign Residents in Japan. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 804.

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