Next Article in Journal
Thyroid Hormones and Spermatozoa: In Vitro Effects on Sperm Mitochondria, Viability and DNA Integrity
Previous Article in Journal
Impact of Lymphocyte and Neutrophil Counts on Mortality Risk in Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia with or without Septic Shock
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Effects of Variability in Blood Pressure, Glucose, and Cholesterol Concentrations, and Body Mass Index on End-Stage Renal Disease in the General Population of Korea

1
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Yeouido St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 07345, Korea
2
Department of Medical Statistics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
3
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
4
Department of Medical Informatics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
5
Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(5), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8050755
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology & Public Health)
  |  
PDF [1310 KB, uploaded 27 May 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Aim: Metabolic parameters, such as blood pressure, glucose, lipid levels, and body weight, can interact with each other, and this clustering of metabolic risk factors is related to the progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The effect of variability in metabolic parameters on the risk of ESRD has not been studied previously. Methods: Using nationally representative data from the Korean National Health Insurance System, 8,199,135 participants who had undergone three or more health examinations between 2005 and 2012 were included in this analysis. Intraindividual variability in systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol (TC), and body mass index (BMI) was assessed by examining the coefficient of variation, variability independent of the mean, and average real variability. High variability was defined as the highest quartile of variability and low variability was defined as the lower three quartiles of variability. Results: Over a median (5–95%) of 7.1 (6.5–7.5) years of follow-up after the variability assessment period, 13,600 (1.7/1000 person-years) participants developed ESRD. For each metabolic parameter, an incrementally higher risk of ESRD was observed for higher variability quartiles compared with the lowest quartile. The risk of ESRD was 46% higher in the highest quartile of SBP variability, 47% higher in the highest quartile of FBG variability, 56% higher in the highest quartile of BMI variability, and 108% higher in the highest quartile of TC variability. Compared with the group with low variability for all four parameters, the group with high variability for all four parameters had a significantly higher risk for incident ESRD (hazard ratio (HR) 4.12; 95% CI 3.72–4.57). Conclusions: Variability in each metabolic parameter was an independent predictor of the development of ESRD among the general population. There was a composite effect of the variability in additional metabolic parameters on the risk of ESRD. View Full-Text
Keywords: ESRD; variability; metabolic parameters ESRD; variability; metabolic parameters
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, M.K.; Han, K.; Kim, H.-S.; Park, Y.-M.; Kwon, H.-S.; Yoon, K.-H.; Lee, S.-H. Effects of Variability in Blood Pressure, Glucose, and Cholesterol Concentrations, and Body Mass Index on End-Stage Renal Disease in the General Population of Korea. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 755.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Clin. Med. EISSN 2077-0383 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top