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Clinical Characteristics of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Psychiatric Disease

1
Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
2
Division of Pulmonology, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens School of Medicine, Alexandra Hospital, 11528 Athens, Greece
3
Exercise Physiology Laboratory, 18450 Nikaia, Greece
4
Department of Pulmonology, Democritus University of Thrace Medical School, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, 68100 Alexandroupolis, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(4), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8040534
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract

Patients with serious psychiatric diseases (major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia and psychotic disorder) often complain about sleepiness during the day, fatigue, low energy, concentration problems, and insomnia; unfortunately, many of these symptoms are also frequent in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). However, existing data about the clinical appearance of OSA in Psychiatric Disease are generally missing. The aim of our study was a detailed and focused evaluation of OSA in Psychiatric Disease, in terms of symptoms, comorbidities, clinical characteristics, daytime respiratory function, and overnight polysomnography data. We examined 110 patients (56 males and 54 females) with stable Psychiatric Disease (Group A: 66 with MDD, Group B: 34 with BD, and Group C: 10 with schizophrenia). At baseline, each patient answered the STOP–Bang Questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and underwent clinical examination, oximetry, spirometry, and overnight polysomnography. Body Mass Index (BMI), neck, waist, and hip circumferences, and arterial blood pressure values were also measured. The mean age of the whole population was 55.1 ± 10.6 years. The three groups had no statistically significant difference in age, BMI, hip circumference, and systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure. Class II and III obesity with BMI > 35 kg/m2 was observed in 36 subjects (32.14%). A moderate main effect of psychiatric disease was observed in neck (p = 0.044, η2 = 0.064) and waist circumference (p = 0.021, η2 = 0.078), with the depression group showing the lowest values, and in pulmonary function (Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, %), p = 0.013, η2 = 0.084), with the psychotic group showing the lowest values. Intermediate to high risk of OSA was present in 87.37% of participants, according to the STOP–Bang Questionnaire (≥3 positive answers), and 70.87% responded positively for feeling tired or sleepy during the day. An Apnea–Hypopnea Index (AHI) ≥ 15 events per hour of sleep was recorded in 72.48% of our patients. AHI was associated positively with male sex, schizophrenia, neck, and waist circumferences, STOP–Bang and ESS scores, and negatively with respiratory function. A large main effect of psychiatric medications was observed in waist circumference (p = 0.046, η2 = 0.151), FVC (%) (p = 0.027, η2 = 0.165), and in time spend with SaO2 < 90% (p = 0.006, η2 = 0.211). Our study yielded that patients with Psychiatric Disease are at risk of OSA, especially men suffering from schizophrenia and psychotic disorders that complain about sleepiness and have central obesity and disturbed respiratory function. Screening for OSA is mandatory in this medical population, as psychiatric patients have significantly poorer physical health than the general population and the coexistence of the two diseases can further negatively impact several health outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea; psychiatric disease; major depressive disorder; bipolar disorder; schizophrenia and psychotic disorder; sleep study obstructive sleep apnea; psychiatric disease; major depressive disorder; bipolar disorder; schizophrenia and psychotic disorder; sleep study
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Knechtle, B.; Economou, N.-T.; Nikolaidis, P.T.; Velentza, L.; Kallianos, A.; Steiropoulos, P.; Koutsompolis, D.; Rosemann, T.; Trakada, G. Clinical Characteristics of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Psychiatric Disease. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 534.

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