Milrinone-Induced Pharmacological Preconditioning in Cardioprotection: Hints for a Role of Mitochondrial Mechanisms
AbstractThe activation of mitochondrial calcium-sensitive potassium (mBKCa) channels is crucially involved in cardioprotection induced by preconditioning. For milrinone (Mil)-induced preconditioning, the involvement of mBKCa-channels and further mitochondrial signaling is unknown. We hypothesize that (1) Mil-induced preconditioning is concentration-dependent and (2) that the activation of mBKCa-channels, release of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) could be involved. Isolated hearts of male Wistar rats were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer and underwent 33 min of ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion. For determination of a concentration-dependent effect of Mil, hearts were perfused with different concentrations of Mil (0.3–10 µM) over 10 min before ischemia. In a second set of experiments, in addition to controls, hearts were pretreated with the lowest protective concentration of 1 µM Mil either alone or combined with the mBKCa-channel blocker paxilline (Pax + Mil), or paxilline alone (Pax). In additional groups, Mil was administered with and without the ROS scavenger N-2-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG + Mil, MPG) or the mPTP inhibitor cyclosporine A (MPG + Mil + CsA, CsA + Mil), respectively. Infarct sizes were determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The lowest and most cardioprotective concentration was 1 µM Mil (Mil 1: 32 ± 6%; p < 0.05 vs. Con: 63 ± 8% and Mil 0.3: 49 ± 6%). Pax and MPG blocked the infarct size reduction of Mil (Pax + Mil: 53 ± 6%, MPG + Mil: 59 ± 7%; p < 0.05 vs. Mil: 34 ± 6%) without having an effect on infarct size when administered alone (Pax: 53 ± 7%, MPG: 58 ± 5%; ns vs. Con). The combined administration of CsA completely restored the MPG-inhibited cardioprotection of Mil (MPG + Mil + CsA: 35 ± 7%, p < 0.05 vs. MPG + Mil). Milrinone concentration-dependently induces preconditioning. Cardioprotection is mediated by the activation of mBKCa-channels, release of ROS and mPTP inhibition.
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Raupach, A.; Reinle, J.; Stroethoff, M.; Mathes, A.; Heinen, A.; Hollmann, M.W.; Huhn, R.; Bunte, S. Milrinone-Induced Pharmacological Preconditioning in Cardioprotection: Hints for a Role of Mitochondrial Mechanisms. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 507.
Raupach A, Reinle J, Stroethoff M, Mathes A, Heinen A, Hollmann MW, Huhn R, Bunte S. Milrinone-Induced Pharmacological Preconditioning in Cardioprotection: Hints for a Role of Mitochondrial Mechanisms. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019; 8(4):507.Chicago/Turabian Style
Raupach, Annika; Reinle, Julia; Stroethoff, Martin; Mathes, Alexander; Heinen, André; Hollmann, Markus W.; Huhn, Ragnar; Bunte, Sebastian. 2019. "Milrinone-Induced Pharmacological Preconditioning in Cardioprotection: Hints for a Role of Mitochondrial Mechanisms." J. Clin. Med. 8, no. 4: 507.
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