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Open AccessArticle

Alterations of the Gut Microbiome in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection Associated with Alanine Aminotransferase Level

1
Gwanghwamun Medical Study Centre, Syntekabio Inc., Seoul 03186, Korea
2
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 04514, Korea
3
Center for Cohort Studies, Total Healthcare Center, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul 04514, Korea
4
Department of Clinical Research Design and Evaluation, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 06351, Korea
5
Medical Research Institute, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul 03181, Korea
6
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 03181, Korea
7
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 03181, Korea
8
Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 07985, Korea
9
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 03181, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(2), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8020173
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Diseases)
The changes in the gut microbiota of healthy hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers, including asymptomatic and non-cirrhotic subjects, have been rarely scrutinized. From 1463 faecal samples in health examinees, in total 112 subjects, including 36 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive and 76 control subjects, were included. Twenty-eight of 36 HBsAg-positive individuals (78%) showed normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (normal ALT group), whereas eight subjects exhibited elevated ALT levels (22%, high ALT group). By using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the distance between normal and high ALT groups among HBsAg-positive subjects showed a significant separation after the pairwise comparison of weighted UniFrac distance (permutational analysis of variance q-value = 0.039), when compared with the distances to the control group. In comparison with the control group, the normal ALT group had Anaerostipes as a significant taxon that showed a positive association (Coefficient (Coef.) = 0.028, q = 0.039). Desulfovibrio (Coef. = 0.54, q = 0.014) and Megasphaera (Coef. = 1.41, q = 0.030) showed positive correlations, and Acidaminococcus (Coef. = −1.31, q = 4.15 × 10−75) exhibited a negative correlation with high ALT level. Gut microbial composition was different according to HBV-induced serum ALT levels, indicative of a potential link between gut and liver metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatitis B virus; gut microbiome; Megasphaera hepatitis B virus; gut microbiome; Megasphaera
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Yun, Y.; Chang, Y.; Kim, H.-N.; Ryu, S.; Kwon, M.-J.; Cho, Y.K.; Kim, H.-L.; Cheong, H.S.; Joo, E.-J. Alterations of the Gut Microbiome in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection Associated with Alanine Aminotransferase Level. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 173.

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