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Epigenetic Modifications in Thyroid Cancer Cells Restore NIS and Radio-Iodine Uptake and Promote Cell Death

1
Department of Visceral Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Philipps University Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg, Germany
2
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Philipps University Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
S.W. and A.I.D. contributed equally.
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7040061
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Cytology)
Epigenetic modifications have been identified as being responsible for the de-differentiation of thyroid tissue and its malignant transformation. Cell proliferation inhibitory effects of the pan-deacetylase inhibitors panobinostat, SAHA and Trichostatin A (TSA), the modulation of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS; SLC5A5), thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1), high mobility group A2 (HMGA2), and H19 and their putative targeting miRNAs have been evaluated in vitro. The cell viability was measured in five thyroid cancer cell lines (FTC133, TPC1, BCPAP, 8505C, C643) by real time cell analyzer xCELLigence. Expression of the above mentioned markers was performed by RT-qPCR and Western Blot. Radioiodine up-take was detected by Gamma Counter with I131. Cell viability decreased after treatment in all five cell lines. 10 nM panobinostat; 1 µM TSA or 10 µM SAHA caused a significant over-expression of NIS transcript in all five cell lines, whereas NIS protein was up-regulated in FTC133, BCPAP, and C643 cell lines only. Radioiodine up-take increased in FTC133 and C643 cells after 48 h of treatment with 10 nM panobinostat and 1 µM TSA. A significant down-regulation of the oncogene HMGA2 was detected in all five cell lines; except for TPC1 cells that were treated with 1 µM TSA. In accordance, hsa-let-7b-5p and hsa-let-7f-5p were stable or significantly over-expressed in all of the cell lines, except for TPC1 cells that were treated with 10 µM SAHA. TTF1 was significantly down-regulated in FTC133, BCPAP, and 8505C cells; whereas, TPC1 and C643 showed an up-regulated or stable expression. TTF1 was over-expressed in samples of human anaplastic thyroid cancer; whereas, it was down-regulated in follicular and undetectable in papillary thyroid cancer. H19 was over-expressed after 48 h treatment, except for BCPAP cells that were treated with panobinostat and SAHA. H19 was differently expressed in human anaplastic, follicular and papillary thyroid tumor samples. Deacetylase inhibitors reduced cell viability, restored NIS and H19, and suppressed the oncogenes HMGA2 and TTF1 in thyroid cancer cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: histone deacetylase inhibitors; thyroid cancer; NIS; H19; miRNAs; TTF1; cell viability; epigenetics histone deacetylase inhibitors; thyroid cancer; NIS; H19; miRNAs; TTF1; cell viability; epigenetics
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Wächter, S.; Damanakis, A.I.; Elxnat, M.; Roth, S.; Wunderlich, A.; Verburg, F.A.; Fellinger, S.A.; Bartsch, D.K.; Di Fazio, P. Epigenetic Modifications in Thyroid Cancer Cells Restore NIS and Radio-Iodine Uptake and Promote Cell Death. J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7, 61.

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