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Prevalence and Fracture Risk of Osteoporosis in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Multicenter Comparative Study of the FRAX and WHO Criteria

1
Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul 06973, Korea
2
Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon 22332, Korea
3
Department of Rheumatology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 16499, Korea
4
Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Gangneung Asan Hospital, Gangneung 25440, Korea
5
Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu 41931, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sang Tae Choi and Seong-Ryul Kwon contributed equally to this work.
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(12), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7120507
Received: 21 October 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 2 December 2018
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Abstract

(1) Background: We evaluated the prevalence and fracture risk of osteoporosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and compared the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) criteria and bone mineral density (BMD) criteria established by the World Health Organization (WHO). (2) Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study, which included 479 RA patients in 5 hospitals, was conducted between January 2012 and December 2016. The FRAX criteria for high-risk osteoporotic fractures were calculated including and excluding the BMD values, respectively. The definition of high risk for fracture by FRAX criteria and BMD criteria by WHO was 10-year probability of ≥ 20% for major osteoporotic fracture or ≥ 3% for hip fracture, and T score ≤ −2.5 or Z score ≤ −2.0, respectively. (3) Results: The mean age was 61.7 ± 11.9 years. The study included 426 female patients (88.9%), 353 (82.9%) of whom were postmenopausal. Osteoporotic fractures were detected in 81 (16.9%) patients. The numbers of candidates for pharmacological intervention using the FRAX criteria with and without BMD and the WHO criteria were 226 (47.2%), 292 (61%), and 160 (33.4%), respectively. Only 69.2%–77% of the patients in the high-risk group using the FRAX criteria were receiving osteoporosis treatments. The following were significant using the WHO criteria: female (OR 3.55, 95% CI 1.46–8.63), age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.08–1.13), and BMI (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.75–0.87). Glucocorticoid dose (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01–1.17), age (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.06–1.12), and disease duration (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1–1.01) were independent risk factors for fracture. (4) Conclusions: The proportion of RA patients with a high risk of osteoporotic fractures was 33.4%–61%. Only 69.2%–77% of candidate patients were receiving osteoporotic treatments while applying FRAX criteria. Independent risk factors for osteoporotic fractures in RA patients were age, the dose of glucocorticoid, and disease duration. View Full-Text
Keywords: osteoporosis; fracture; fracture risk assessment tool; rheumatoid arthritis osteoporosis; fracture; fracture risk assessment tool; rheumatoid arthritis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Choi, S.T.; Kwon, S.-R.; Jung, J.-Y.; Kim, H.-A.; Kim, S.-S.; Kim, S.H.; Kim, J.-M.; Park, J.-H.; Suh, C.-H. Prevalence and Fracture Risk of Osteoporosis in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Multicenter Comparative Study of the FRAX and WHO Criteria. J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7, 507.

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