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Open AccessArticle

Gallbladder Stone Disease Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Migraines

by 1,2,3, 4,5 and 6,7,8,*
1
Digestive Disease Center, Changbing Show-Chwan Memorial Hospital, Lukang 505, Taiwan
2
Digestive Disease Center, Show-Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan
3
Department of Food Science and Technology, Hungkuang University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
4
Management Office for Health Data, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan
5
College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
6
Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences and School of Medicine, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
7
Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan
8
Department of Bioinformatics and Medical Engineering, Asia University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(11), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7110455
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 4 November 2018 / Accepted: 17 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine)
Background: Several pathophysiological mechanisms are shared in both gallbladder stone disease (GSD) and migraines. We assessed the migraine risk for patients diagnosed with GSD. Methods: We identified 20,427 patients who were diagnosed with GSD between 2000 and 2011 from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) as the study cohort. We randomly selected 81,706 controls from the non-GSD population with frequency matching by age and index year for the control cohort. All patient cases were followed until the end of 2011 to measure the incidence of migraines. Results: The cumulative incidence of migraines was greater in patients with GSD than in those without GSD (log-rank test: p < 0.001). The risk of migraine (3.89 vs. 2.30 per 10,000 person-years, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.41–1.73) was greater for the GSD cohort than that for the non-GSD cohort. The risk of migraine increased with the time of follow-up after a diagnosis of GSD. The risk of migraine contributed by GSD was greater for all age groups. The risk of migraine for GSD patients with depression (aHR = 2.89, 95% CI = 2.21–3.77), anxiety (aHR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.58–2.70), and coronary artery disease (CAD) (aHR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.69–2.48) tended to be greater than that for GSD patients without depression (aHR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.39–1.72), anxiety (aHR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.46–1.81), and CAD (aHR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.47–1.85), respectively. Compared with the patients without GSD, the risk of developing migraines was greater in those GSD patients either with (aHR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.19–1.63) or without (aHR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.48–1.88) cholecystectomy. Compared with the GSD patients that have not had a cholecystectomy, the risk of developing migraines was lower in the GSD patients that had a cholecystectomy (aHR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.69–0.99). Conclusions: GSD is associated with an increased risk of migraines in the Taiwanese population, but the risk diminishes after a cholecystectomy. Furthermore, in the development of migraines, GSD is synergic with some migraine-associated comorbidities, such as CAD, depression, and anxiety. Further study is necessary to clarify whether GSD is a causal risk factor for migraine. View Full-Text
Keywords: gallbladder stone disease; migraine; comorbidity; cohort study; cholecystectomy gallbladder stone disease; migraine; comorbidity; cohort study; cholecystectomy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, C.-H.; Lin, C.-L.; Kao, C.-H. Gallbladder Stone Disease Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Migraines. J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7, 455. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7110455

AMA Style

Chen C-H, Lin C-L, Kao C-H. Gallbladder Stone Disease Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Migraines. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2018; 7(11):455. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7110455

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Chien-Hua; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung. 2018. "Gallbladder Stone Disease Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Migraines" J. Clin. Med. 7, no. 11: 455. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7110455

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