Next Article in Journal
Physical Frailty and Cognitive Functioning in Korea Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults
Next Article in Special Issue
Baseline Psychological Inflexibility Moderates the Outcome Pain Interference in a Randomized Controlled Trial on Internet-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Chronic Pain
Previous Article in Journal
Immunopharmacology of Post-Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure Medications
Previous Article in Special Issue
Alexithymia and Somatosensory Amplification Link Perceived Psychosocial Stress and Somatic Symptoms in Outpatients with Psychosomatic Illness
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(11), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7110404

Effects of Mind–Body Exercises (Tai Chi/Yoga) on Heart Rate Variability Parameters and Perceived Stress: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

1
Department of Sports Science and Physical Education, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
2
Department of Sport Sciences, Institute of Health Sciences, Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG 38025-440, Brazil
3
Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
4
Department of Physical Education, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240, China
5
Depression Clinical and Research Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
6
Center for Integrative Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychosomatic Medicine)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4101 KB, uploaded 31 October 2018]   |  

Abstract

Background: Heart rate variability (HRV) as an accurate, noninvasive measure of the Autonomous Nervous System (ANS) can reflect mental health (e.g., stress, depression, or anxiety). Tai Chi and Yoga (Tai Chi/Yoga), as the most widely practiced mind–body exercises, have shown positive outcomes of mental health. To date, no systematic review regarding the long-lasting effects of Tai Chi/Yoga on HRV parameters and perceived stress has been conducted. Objective: To critically evaluate the existing literature on this topic. Methods: Five electronic databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, SportDiscus and Cochrane Library) were searched from the start of the research project to July 2018. Study selection, data extraction, and study quality assessment were independently carried out by two reviewers. The potentially identified randomized controlled trials (RCT) reported the useful quantitative data that were included only for meta-analysis. Results: meta-analysis of 17 medium-to-high quality RCTs showed significantly beneficial effects on HRV parameters (normalized low-frequency, Hedge’s g = −0.39, 95% CI −0.39 to −0.56, p < 0.001, I2 = 11.62%; normalized high-frequency, Hedge’s g = 0.37, 95% CI 0.22 to −0.52, p < 0.001, I2 = 0%; low-frequency to high-frequency ratio, Hedge’s g = −0.58, 95% CI −0.81 to −0.35, p < 0.001, I2 = 53.78%) and stress level (Hedge’s g = −0.80, 95% CI −1.17 to −0.44, p < 0.001, I2 = 68.54%). Conclusions: Stress reduction may be attributed to sympathetic-vagal balance modulated by mind–body exercises. Tai Chi/Yoga could be an alternative method for stress reduction for people who live under high stress or negative emotions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Yoga; Tai Chi; mindfulness; psycho-social stress; HRV; autonomous nervous system Yoga; Tai Chi; mindfulness; psycho-social stress; HRV; autonomous nervous system
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zou, L.; Sasaki, J.E.; Wei, G.-X.; Huang, T.; Yeung, A.S.; Neto, O.B.; Chen, K.W.; Hui, S. .-C. Effects of Mind–Body Exercises (Tai Chi/Yoga) on Heart Rate Variability Parameters and Perceived Stress: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7, 404.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Clin. Med. EISSN 2077-0383 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top