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Epicardial Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Heart Development and Disease

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David L. Brown
J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(2), 27;
Received: 21 November 2015 / Revised: 22 January 2016 / Accepted: 3 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition)
PDF [510 KB, uploaded 19 February 2016]


The epicardium is an epithelial monolayer that plays a central role in heart development and the myocardial response to injury. Recent developments in our understanding of epicardial cell biology have revealed this layer to be a dynamic participant in fundamental processes underlying the development of the embryonic ventricles, the coronary vasculature, and the cardiac valves. Likewise, recent data have identified the epicardium as an important contributor to reparative and regenerative processes in the injured myocardium. These essential functions of the epicardium rely on both non-cell autonomous and cell-autonomous mechanisms, with the latter featuring the process of epicardial Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). This review will focus on the induction and regulation of epicardial EMT, as it pertains to both cardiogenesis and the response of the myocardium to injury. View Full-Text
Keywords: epicardium; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; heart development epicardium; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; heart development

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MDPI and ACS Style

Krainock, M.; Toubat, O.; Danopoulos, S.; Beckham, A.; Warburton, D.; Kim, R. Epicardial Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Heart Development and Disease. J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5, 27.

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