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MicroRNA Processing and Human Cancer

1
Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1881 East Road, Unit 1950, APT 1125, Houston, TX 77030, USA
2
Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Yamadaoka 2-2, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Takahiro Ochiya and Ryou-u Takahashi
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(8), 1651-1667; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4081651
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 11 August 2015 / Accepted: 12 August 2015 / Published: 21 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNAs: Novel Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets for Human Cancers)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs of 20 to 25 nucleotides that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally mainly by binding to a specific sequence of the 3′ end of the untranslated region (3′UTR) of target genes. Since the first report on the clinical relevance of miRNAs in cancer, many miRNAs have been demonstrated to act as oncogenes, whereas others function as tumor suppressors. Furthermore, global miRNA dysregulation, due to alterations in miRNA processing factors, has been observed in a large variety of human cancer types. As previous studies have shown, the sequential miRNA processing can be divided into three steps: processing by RNAse in the nucleus; transportation by Exportin-5 (XPO5) from the nucleus; and processing by the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) in the cytoplasm. Alteration in miRNA processing genes, by genomic mutations, aberrant expression or other means, could significantly affect cancer initiation, progression and metastasis. In this review, we focus on the biogenesis of miRNAs with emphasis on the potential of miRNA processing factors in human cancers. View Full-Text
Keywords: MicroRNAs; biogenesis; cancer MicroRNAs; biogenesis; cancer
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Ohtsuka, M.; Ling, H.; Doki, Y.; Mori, M.; Calin, G.A. MicroRNA Processing and Human Cancer. J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4, 1651-1667.

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