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Current Approaches in the Treatment of Relapsed and Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Myeloid Malignancies Section, Hematology Branch, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1583, USA
Department of Hematology-Oncology, John P. Murtha Cancer Center, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD 20889, USA
Division of Hematologic Malignancies, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Celalettin Ustun and Lucy A. Godley
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(4), 665-695;
Received: 16 January 2015 / Revised: 19 March 2015 / Accepted: 20 March 2015 / Published: 10 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue AML in the Molecular Age: From Biology to Clinical Management)
The limited sensitivity of the historical treatment response criteria for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has resulted in a different paradigm for treatment compared with most other cancers presenting with widely disseminated disease. Initial cytotoxic induction chemotherapy is often able to reduce tumor burden to a level sufficient to meet the current criteria for “complete” remission. Nevertheless, most AML patients ultimately die from their disease, most commonly as clinically evident relapsed AML. Despite a variety of available salvage therapy options, prognosis in patients with relapsed or refractory AML is generally poor. In this review, we outline the commonly utilized salvage cytotoxic therapy interventions and then highlight novel investigational efforts currently in clinical trials using both pathway-targeted agents and immunotherapy based approaches. We conclude that there is no current standard of care for adult relapsed or refractory AML other than offering referral to an appropriate clinical trial. View Full-Text
Keywords: salvage therapy; leukemia; neoplasm metastasis; AML; relapse salvage therapy; leukemia; neoplasm metastasis; AML; relapse
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Ramos, N.R.; Mo, C.C.; Karp, J.E.; Hourigan, C.S. Current Approaches in the Treatment of Relapsed and Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia. J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4, 665-695.

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