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J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(4), 579-592;

The Interaction between Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Human Papillomaviruses in Heterosexuals in Africa

Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town and National Health Laboratory Service, Groote Schuur Hospital, Observatory, Cape Town 7925, South Africa
Academic Editor: Jane Grant-Kels
Received: 15 December 2014 / Revised: 12 February 2015 / Accepted: 10 March 2015 / Published: 2 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Advances of Human Papillomaviruses)
Full-Text   |   PDF [136 KB, uploaded 2 April 2015]


Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer in the world, which is further aggravated by the burden of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) disease with invasive cervical cancer being an AIDS-defining cancer. The prevalence of HPV infection and associated disease is very high in HIV-infected people and continues to be a problem even after anti-retroviral therapy. In the genital tract, the interaction between HPV and HIV is complex, with infection with multiple HPV types reported to make both women and men more susceptible to HIV infection. Besides the national programmes to vaccinate girls against HPV and screen women for cervical cancer, there should be targeted cervical cancer screening, treatment and prevention programmes introduced into HIV treatment centres. There is evidence that in high HIV prevalence areas, HIV-positive women could cause increases in the prevalence of genital HPV infection in HIV-negative men and so increase the HPV circulating in the community. Condom use and circumcision reduce the acquisition of HIV-1, and also to some extent of HPV. This review will highlight what is known about the interaction of HIV and HPV, with an emphasis on research in Africa. View Full-Text
Keywords: human papillomavirus; HIV-1; circumcision human papillomavirus; HIV-1; circumcision
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Williamson, A.-L. The Interaction between Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Human Papillomaviruses in Heterosexuals in Africa. J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4, 579-592.

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