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Article

Pandemic Preparedness: The Importance of Adequate Immune Fitness

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Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands
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Lead Healthcare, Luitenant Generaal van Heutszlaan 8, 3743 JN Baarn, The Netherlands
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Global Centre of Excellence Immunology, Nutricia Danone Research, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
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Division of Psychology and Social Work, School of Education and Social Sciences, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE, UK
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Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC 3122, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Muro
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2442; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092442
Received: 29 March 2022 / Revised: 24 April 2022 / Accepted: 25 April 2022 / Published: 26 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology & Public Health)
Pandemic preparedness is an important issue in relation to future pandemics. The two studies described here aimed to identify factors predicting the presence and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms. The CLOFIT study comprised an online survey among the Dutch population (n = 1415). Perceived immune fitness before the pandemic (2019) and during the first lockdown period (15 March–11 May 2020) and the number and severity of COVID-19 symptoms were assessed. The COTEST study, conducted between December 2020 and June 2021, replicated the CLOFIT study in n = 925 participants who were tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Dutch commercial test locations. The CLOFIT study revealed that immune fitness before the pandemic was the greatest predictor of the number and severity of COVID-19 symptoms (20.1% and 19.8%, respectively). Other significant predictors included immune fitness during the lockdown (5.5% and 7.1%, respectively), and having underlying diseases (0.4% and 0.5%, respectively). In the COTEST study, for those who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, immune fitness before the pandemic was the single predictor of the number (27.2%) and severity (33.1%) of COVID-19 symptoms during the pandemic. In conclusion, for those who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, immune fitness before the pandemic was the strongest predictor of the number and severity of COVID-19 symptoms during the pandemic. Therefore, the development of strategies to maintain an adequate immune fitness must be regarded as an essential component of pandemic preparedness. View Full-Text
Keywords: pandemic preparedness; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; immune fitness; underlying disease; age; sex pandemic preparedness; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; immune fitness; underlying disease; age; sex
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kiani, P.; Balikji, J.; Kraneveld, A.D.; Garssen, J.; Bruce, G.; Verster, J.C. Pandemic Preparedness: The Importance of Adequate Immune Fitness. J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11, 2442. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092442

AMA Style

Kiani P, Balikji J, Kraneveld AD, Garssen J, Bruce G, Verster JC. Pandemic Preparedness: The Importance of Adequate Immune Fitness. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2022; 11(9):2442. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092442

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kiani, Pantea, Jessica Balikji, Aletta D. Kraneveld, Johan Garssen, Gillian Bruce, and Joris C. Verster. 2022. "Pandemic Preparedness: The Importance of Adequate Immune Fitness" Journal of Clinical Medicine 11, no. 9: 2442. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092442

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