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Article

Effects of Butyrate Supplementation on Inflammation and Kidney Parameters in Type 1 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

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Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, 2730 Herlev, Denmark
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Department of Nephrology, Herlev University Hospital, 2730 Herlev, Denmark
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Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, 00290 Helsinki, Finland
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Department of Nephrology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 00290 Helsinki, Finland
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Clinical and Molecular Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine Research Programs, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
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Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Research Unit of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
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Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
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Department of Diabetes, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
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Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Akira Matsumori and DeLisa Fairweather
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(13), 3573; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11133573
Received: 13 April 2022 / Revised: 27 April 2022 / Accepted: 9 June 2022 / Published: 21 June 2022
Type 1 diabetes is associated with increased intestinal inflammation and decreased abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria. We investigated the effect of butyrate on inflammation, kidney parameters, HbA1c, serum metabolites and gastrointestinal symptoms in persons with type 1 diabetes, albuminuria and intestinal inflammation. We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel clinical study involving 53 participants randomized to 3.6 g sodium butyrate daily or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in fecal calprotectin. Additional endpoints were the change in fecal short chain fatty acids, intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity and immunoglobulins, serum lipopolysaccharide, CRP, albuminuria, kidney function, HbA1c, metabolites and gastrointestinal symptoms. The mean age was 54 ± 13 years, and the median [Q1:Q3] urinary albumin excretion was 46 [14:121] mg/g. The median fecal calprotectin in the butyrate group was 48 [26:100] μg/g at baseline, and the change was −1.0 [−20:10] μg/g; the median in the placebo group was 61 [25:139] μg/g at baseline, and the change was −12 [−95:1] μg/g. The difference between the groups was not significant (p = 0.24); neither did we find an effect of butyrate compared to placebo on the other inflammatory markers, kidney parameters, HbA1c, metabolites nor gastrointestinal symptoms. Twelve weeks of butyrate supplementation did not reduce intestinal inflammation in persons with type 1 diabetes, albuminuria and intestinal inflammation. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 1 diabetes; intestinal inflammation; albuminuria; butyrate; intestinal alkaline phosphatase type 1 diabetes; intestinal inflammation; albuminuria; butyrate; intestinal alkaline phosphatase
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tougaard, N.H.; Frimodt-Møller, M.; Salmenkari, H.; Stougaard, E.B.; Zawadzki, A.D.; Mattila, I.M.; Hansen, T.W.; Legido-Quigley, C.; Hörkkö, S.; Forsblom, C.; Groop, P.-H.; Lehto, M.; Rossing, P. Effects of Butyrate Supplementation on Inflammation and Kidney Parameters in Type 1 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11, 3573. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11133573

AMA Style

Tougaard NH, Frimodt-Møller M, Salmenkari H, Stougaard EB, Zawadzki AD, Mattila IM, Hansen TW, Legido-Quigley C, Hörkkö S, Forsblom C, Groop P-H, Lehto M, Rossing P. Effects of Butyrate Supplementation on Inflammation and Kidney Parameters in Type 1 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2022; 11(13):3573. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11133573

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tougaard, Ninna H., Marie Frimodt-Møller, Hanne Salmenkari, Elisabeth B. Stougaard, Andressa D. Zawadzki, Ismo M. Mattila, Tine W. Hansen, Cristina Legido-Quigley, Sohvi Hörkkö, Carol Forsblom, Per-Henrik Groop, Markku Lehto, and Peter Rossing. 2022. "Effects of Butyrate Supplementation on Inflammation and Kidney Parameters in Type 1 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial" Journal of Clinical Medicine 11, no. 13: 3573. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11133573

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