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Depression as a Risk Factor for Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Meta-Analyses

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Department of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Health Science, University of Burgos, C/Paseo de los Comendadores, Hospital Militar, 1, 09001 Burgos, Spain
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Psychiatry Service, Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
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Department of Social Psychology, Faculty of Health Science, University of Burgos, C/Villadiego, 1, 09001 Burgos, Spain
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Department of Social Psychology, Faculty of Health Science, University of Burgos, C/Paseo de los Comendadores, Hospital Militar, 1, 09001 Burgos, Spain
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Department of Applied Economy, Faculty of Economics and Business Sciences, University of Burgos, Pza. De la Infanta Dª Elena, 09001 Burgos, Spain
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Research, Innovation and Teaching Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Universitat de Barcelona, Carrer Doctor Pujadas 42, 08830 Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain
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Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Ministry of Science and Innovation, Av. Monforte de Lemos 3-5, Pabellón 11, Planta 0, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Microbiology, Pediatrics, Radiology and Public Health, University of Zaragoza, C/Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
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Aragonese Institute of Health Sciences (IIS Aragón), 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marco Bozzali
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(9), 1809; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10091809
Received: 10 March 2021 / Revised: 12 April 2021 / Accepted: 15 April 2021 / Published: 21 April 2021
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most frequent cause of dementia, linked to morbidity and mortality among elderly patients. Recently, several clinical studies suggested that depression is a potential risk factor for cognitive decline and AD. A review of meta-analyses was performed, calculating pooled odds ratios to estimate the risk of AD in people with a prior diagnosis (or clinically significant symptoms) of depression. A total of six meta-analyses which represented 28 individual studies were analyzed. A significant association between depression and AD was found (OR = 1.54, 95% CI [1.02–2.31]; p = 0.038). The results showed that heterogeneity across studies was substantial. We found a significant positive effect size for clinical measures of depression, but not for symptomatic rating scales, in the association of depression with risk of AD. The type of rating scale used to assess depression and the cut-off criteria selected also moderated the relationship between depression and AD risk. We found that studies that used clinically significant criteria for diagnosis of depression had more consistent and significant results than studies that used symptomatic scales. View Full-Text
Keywords: depression; Alzheimer’s disease; clinical and symptomatic criteria; meta-meta-analysis depression; Alzheimer’s disease; clinical and symptomatic criteria; meta-meta-analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sáiz-Vázquez, O.; Gracia-García, P.; Ubillos-Landa, S.; Puente-Martínez, A.; Casado-Yusta, S.; Olaya, B.; Santabárbara, J. Depression as a Risk Factor for Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Meta-Analyses. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 1809. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10091809

AMA Style

Sáiz-Vázquez O, Gracia-García P, Ubillos-Landa S, Puente-Martínez A, Casado-Yusta S, Olaya B, Santabárbara J. Depression as a Risk Factor for Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Meta-Analyses. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(9):1809. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10091809

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sáiz-Vázquez, Olalla, Patricia Gracia-García, Silvia Ubillos-Landa, Alicia Puente-Martínez, Silvia Casado-Yusta, Beatriz Olaya, and Javier Santabárbara. 2021. "Depression as a Risk Factor for Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Meta-Analyses" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 9: 1809. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10091809

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