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Article

Effect of Wearing Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) on CPR Quality in Times of the COVID-19 Pandemic—A Simulation, Randomised Crossover Trial

1
Institute of Mountain Emergency Medicine, Eurac Research, Viale Druso 1, 39100 Bolzano, Italy
2
Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, “F. Tappeiner” Hospital, Via Rossini 5, 39012 Merano, Italy
3
Southtyrolean Helicopter Emergency Medical Service, Via Lorenz Böhler 3, 39100 Bolzano, Italy
4
Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Brunico General Hospital, Via Ospedale 11, 39031 Brunico, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editors: Andrea Scapigliati, Niccolò Grieco and Giuseppe Ristagno
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(8), 1728; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10081728
Received: 16 March 2021 / Revised: 13 April 2021 / Accepted: 14 April 2021 / Published: 16 April 2021
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is considered an aerosol-generating procedure. Consequently, COVID-19 resuscitation guidelines recommend the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during resuscitation. In this simulation of randomised crossover trials, we investigated the influence of PPE on the quality of chest compressions (CCs). Thirty-four emergency medical service BLS-providers performed two 20 min CPR sequences (five 2 min cycles alternated by 2 min of rest) on manikins, once with and once without PPE, in a randomised order. The PPE was composed of a filtering facepiece 3 FFP3 mask, safety glasses, gloves and a long-sleeved gown. The primary outcome was defined as the difference between compression depth with and without PPE; secondary outcomes were defined as differences in CC rate, release and the number of effective CCs. The participants graded fatigue and performance, while generalised estimating equations (GEE) were used to analyse data. There was no significant difference in CC quality between sequences without and with PPE regarding depth (mean depth 54 ± 5 vs. 54 ± 6 mm respectively), rate (mean rate 119 ± 9 and 118 ± 6 compressions per minute), release (mean release 2 ± 2 vs. 2 ± 2 mm) and the number of effective CCs (43 ± 18 vs. 45 ± 17). The participants appraised higher fatigue when equipped with PPE in comparison to when equipped without PPE (p < 0.001), and lower performance was appraised when equipped with PPE in comparison to when equipped without PPE (p = 0.031). There is no negative effect of wearing PPE on the quality of CCs during CPR in comparison to not wearing PPE. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiopulmonary resuscitation; chest compression; personal protective equipment; COVID-19; airborne disease transmission prevention; aerosol generating procedure cardiopulmonary resuscitation; chest compression; personal protective equipment; COVID-19; airborne disease transmission prevention; aerosol generating procedure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rauch, S.; van Veelen, M.J.; Oberhammer, R.; Dal Cappello, T.; Roveri, G.; Gruber, E.; Strapazzon, G. Effect of Wearing Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) on CPR Quality in Times of the COVID-19 Pandemic—A Simulation, Randomised Crossover Trial. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 1728. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10081728

AMA Style

Rauch S, van Veelen MJ, Oberhammer R, Dal Cappello T, Roveri G, Gruber E, Strapazzon G. Effect of Wearing Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) on CPR Quality in Times of the COVID-19 Pandemic—A Simulation, Randomised Crossover Trial. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(8):1728. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10081728

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rauch, Simon, Michiel J. van Veelen, Rosmarie Oberhammer, Tomas Dal Cappello, Giulia Roveri, Elisabeth Gruber, and Giacomo Strapazzon. 2021. "Effect of Wearing Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) on CPR Quality in Times of the COVID-19 Pandemic—A Simulation, Randomised Crossover Trial" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 8: 1728. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10081728

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