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Childhood-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Southeast Asian Perspectives

Pediatric Rheumatology Unit, Selayang Hospital, Batu Caves 68100, Malaysia
Department of Pediatrics, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Sungai Buloh 47000, Malaysia
Rheumatology and Immunology Service, Department of Pediatric Subspecialties, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899, Singapore
Pediatric Academic Clinical Program, Duke-NUS Medical School, 8 College Road, Singapore 169857, Singapore
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Takako Miyamae
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(4), 559;
Received: 14 January 2021 / Revised: 29 January 2021 / Accepted: 30 January 2021 / Published: 3 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric and Adolescent Rheumatology: A Rapidly Developing Field)
Childhood onset systemic lupus erythematosus is a rare disease that is more common amongst Southeast Asian children compared to the West. It is typified by a peripubertal onset and a female preponderance, which increases with advancing age. Organs commonly involved at diagnosis include haematological, renal, and mucocutaneous. Fever, malar rash, and cutaneous vasculitis are common. Lupus nephritis is typically proliferative especially Class IV and contributes to both disease activity and damage. Antinuclear antibody and anti-dsDNA positivity are both prevalent in this region. Disease activity is higher than Western cohorts at onset but responds to therapy reducing to low disease activity by six months. However, organ damage occurs early and continues to accumulate over the time, a consequence of both active disease (neurological and renal systems) and steroid-related complications especially in the eye (cataract and glaucoma) and musculoskeletal systems (avascular necrosis). Infections remain the leading cause of death and mortality in this region is highly variable contributed by the heterogeneity in social economic status, healthcare access, and availability of paediatric rheumatology expertise in the region. View Full-Text
Keywords: child; lupus; Southeast Asia; clinical features; disease activity; disease damage child; lupus; Southeast Asia; clinical features; disease activity; disease damage
MDPI and ACS Style

Tang, S.P.; Lim, S.C.; Arkachaisri, T. Childhood-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Southeast Asian Perspectives. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 559.

AMA Style

Tang SP, Lim SC, Arkachaisri T. Childhood-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Southeast Asian Perspectives. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(4):559.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tang, Swee P., Sern C. Lim, and Thaschawee Arkachaisri. 2021. "Childhood-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Southeast Asian Perspectives" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 4: 559.

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