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Article

Is Central Sensitisation the Missing Link of Persisting Symptoms after COVID-19 Infection?

by 1,2,3,4,5,*, 2,3,6, 7 and 1,2,3,4,8
1
Department of Neurosurgery, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels, Belgium
2
STIMULUS Research Group (reSearch and TeachIng neuroModULation Uz bruSsel), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels, Belgium
3
Center for Neurosciences (C4N), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels, Belgium
4
Pain in Motion (PAIN) Research Group, Department of Physiotherapy, Human Physiology and Anatomy, Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels, Belgium
5
Research Foundation—Flanders (FWO), 1090 Brussels, Belgium
6
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels, Belgium
7
Chief Executive Officer, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels, Belgium
8
Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tomoyuki Kawamata
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(23), 5594; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10235594
Received: 26 October 2021 / Revised: 23 November 2021 / Accepted: 26 November 2021 / Published: 28 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lifestyle and Chronic Pain)
Patients recovered from a COVID-19 infection often report vague symptoms of fatigue or dyspnoea, comparable to the manifestations in patients with central sensitisation. The hypothesis was that central sensitisation could be the underlying common aetiology in both patient populations. This study explored the presence of symptoms of central sensitisation, and the association with functional status and health-related quality of life, in patients post COVID-19 infection. Patients who were previously infected with COVID-19 filled out the Central Sensitisation Inventory (CSI), the Post-COVID-19 Functional Status (PCFS) Scale and the EuroQol with five dimensions, through an online survey. Eventually, 567 persons completed the survey. In total, 29.73% of the persons had a score of <40/100 on the CSI and 70.26% had a score of ≥40/100. Regarding functional status, 7.34% had no functional limitations, 9.13% had negligible functional limitations, 37.30% reported slight functional limitations, 42.86% indicated moderate functional limitations and 3.37% reported severe functional limitations. Based on a one-way ANOVA test, there was a significant effect of PCFS Scale group level on the total CSI score (F(4,486) = 46.17, p < 0.001). This survey indicated the presence of symptoms of central sensitisation in more than 70% of patients post COVID-19 infection, suggesting towards the need for patient education and multimodal rehabilitation, to target nociplastic pain. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; persisting symptoms; fatigue; nociplastic pain; functional status; central sensitisation COVID-19; persisting symptoms; fatigue; nociplastic pain; functional status; central sensitisation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Goudman, L.; De Smedt, A.; Noppen, M.; Moens, M. Is Central Sensitisation the Missing Link of Persisting Symptoms after COVID-19 Infection? J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 5594. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10235594

AMA Style

Goudman L, De Smedt A, Noppen M, Moens M. Is Central Sensitisation the Missing Link of Persisting Symptoms after COVID-19 Infection? Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(23):5594. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10235594

Chicago/Turabian Style

Goudman, Lisa, Ann De Smedt, Marc Noppen, and Maarten Moens. 2021. "Is Central Sensitisation the Missing Link of Persisting Symptoms after COVID-19 Infection?" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 23: 5594. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10235594

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