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Article

Effect of Age on Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients

1
Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, 8200 Aarhus, Denmark
2
Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, 8200 Aarhus, Denmark
3
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Aarhus University Hospital, 8200 Aarhus, Denmark
4
Steno Diabetes Center Aarhus, Aarhus University Hospital, 8200 Aarhus, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Muro
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(20), 4798; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10204798
Received: 23 September 2021 / Revised: 11 October 2021 / Accepted: 13 October 2021 / Published: 19 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology & Public Health)
An effective but balanced cellular and inflammatory immune response may limit the severity of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), whereas uncontrolled inflammation leads to disease progression. Older age is associated with higher risk of COVID-19 and a worse outcome, but the underlying immunological mechanisms for this age-related difference are not clear. We investigated the impact of age on viral replication, inflammation, and innate and adaptive cellular immune responses in 205 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. During the early symptomatic phase of COVID-19, we found that patients above 65 years had significantly higher viral load, higher levels of proinflammatory markers, and inadequate mobilization and activation of monocytes, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and CD8 T cells compared to those below 65 years. Our study points toward age-related deficiencies in the innate immune cellular response to SARS-CoV-2 as a potential cause of poorly controlled viral replication and inflammation during the early symptom phase and subsequent disease progression. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; age; monocytes; DCs; NK cells; T cells; clinical recovery SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; age; monocytes; DCs; NK cells; T cells; clinical recovery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cham, L.B.; Pahus, M.H.; Grønhøj, K.; Olesen, R.; Ngo, H.; Monrad, I.; Kjolby, M.; Tolstrup, M.; Gunst, J.D.; Søgaard, O.S. Effect of Age on Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 4798. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10204798

AMA Style

Cham LB, Pahus MH, Grønhøj K, Olesen R, Ngo H, Monrad I, Kjolby M, Tolstrup M, Gunst JD, Søgaard OS. Effect of Age on Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(20):4798. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10204798

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cham, Lamin B., Marie H. Pahus, Kristoffer Grønhøj, Rikke Olesen, Hien Ngo, Ida Monrad, Mads Kjolby, Martin Tolstrup, Jesper D. Gunst, and Ole S. Søgaard. 2021. "Effect of Age on Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 20: 4798. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10204798

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