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Article

Development and Validation of a Model to Predict Severe Hospital-Acquired Acute Kidney Injury in Non-Critically Ill Patients

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Department of Nephrology, Arnau de Vilanova University Hospital, 25198 Lleida, Spain
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Department of Medicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
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Institute of Biomedical Research (IRBLleida), 25198 Lleida, Spain
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Department of Nephrology, Vall d’Hebron University Hospital, 08035 Barcelona, Spain
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Department of Nephrology, Althaia Foundation, 08243 Manresa, Spain
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Department of Informatics, Vall d’Hebron University Hospital, 08035 Barcelona, Spain
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Department of Development, Parc Salut Hospital, 08019 Barcelona, Spain
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Department of Information, Southern Metropolitan Territorial Management, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
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Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Vall d’Hebron University Hospital, 08035 Barcelona, Spain
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Laboratory Department, Arnau de Vilanova University Hospital, 25198 Lleida, Spain
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Technical Secretary and Territorial Management of Lleida-Pirineus, 25198 Lleida, Spain
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Informatic Unit of the Catalonian Institute of Health—Territorial Management, 25198 Lleida, Spain
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Territorial Management Information Systems, Catalonian Institute of Health, 25198 Lleida, Spain
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Amalfi Analytics S.A, 08018 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Principal investigator.
Academic Editor: Ersilia Lucenteforte
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(17), 3959; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10173959
Received: 31 May 2021 / Revised: 13 August 2021 / Accepted: 24 August 2021 / Published: 31 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology & Public Health)
Background. The current models developed to predict hospital-acquired AKI (HA-AKI) in non-critically ill fail to identify the patients at risk of severe HA-AKI stage 3. Objective. To develop and externally validate a model to predict the individual probability of developing HA-AKI stage 3 through the integration of electronic health databases. Methods. Study set: 165,893 non-critically ill hospitalized patients. Using stepwise logistic regression analyses, including demography, chronic comorbidities, and exposure to risk factors prior to AKI detection, we developed a multivariate model to predict HA-AKI stage 3. This model was then externally validated in 43,569 non-critical patients admitted to the validation center. Results. The incidence of HA-AKI stage 3 in the study set was 0.6%. Among chronic comorbidities, the highest odds ratios were conferred by ischemic heart disease, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, chronic congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease and liver disease. Among acute complications, the highest odd ratios were associated with acute respiratory failure, major surgery and exposure to nephrotoxic drugs. The model showed an AUC of 0.906 (95% CI 0.904 to 0.908), a sensitivity of 89.1 (95% CI 87.0–91.0) and a specificity of 80.5 (95% CI 80.2–80.7) to predict HA-AKI stage 3, but tended to overestimate the risk at low-risk categories with an adequate goodness-of-fit for all risk categories (Chi2: 16.4, p: 0.034). In the validation set, incidence of HA-AKI stage 3 was 0.62%. The model showed an AUC of 0.861 (95% CI 0.859–0.863), a sensitivity of 83.0 (95% CI 80.5–85.3) and a specificity of 76.5 (95% CI 76.2–76.8) to predict HA-AKI stage 3 with an adequate goodness of fit for all risk categories (Chi2: 15.42, p: 0.052). Conclusions. Our study provides a model that can be used in clinical practice to obtain an accurate dynamic assessment of the individual risk of HA-AKI stage 3 along the hospital stay period in non-critically ill patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: acute kidney injury; hospital-acquired; electronic health data records; risk score acute kidney injury; hospital-acquired; electronic health data records; risk score
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carpio, J.D.; Marco, M.P.; Martin, M.L.; Ramos, N.; de la Torre, J.; Prat, J.; Torres, M.J.; Montoro, B.; Ibarz, M.; Pico, S.; Falcon, G.; Canales, M.; Huertas, E.; Romero, I.; Nieto, N.; Gavaldà, R.; Segarra, A. Development and Validation of a Model to Predict Severe Hospital-Acquired Acute Kidney Injury in Non-Critically Ill Patients. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 3959. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10173959

AMA Style

Carpio JD, Marco MP, Martin ML, Ramos N, de la Torre J, Prat J, Torres MJ, Montoro B, Ibarz M, Pico S, Falcon G, Canales M, Huertas E, Romero I, Nieto N, Gavaldà R, Segarra A. Development and Validation of a Model to Predict Severe Hospital-Acquired Acute Kidney Injury in Non-Critically Ill Patients. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(17):3959. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10173959

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carpio, Jacqueline Del, Maria Paz Marco, Maria Luisa Martin, Natalia Ramos, Judith de la Torre, Joana Prat, Maria J. Torres, Bruno Montoro, Mercedes Ibarz, Silvia Pico, Gloria Falcon, Marina Canales, Elisard Huertas, Iñaki Romero, Nacho Nieto, Ricard Gavaldà, and Alfons Segarra. 2021. "Development and Validation of a Model to Predict Severe Hospital-Acquired Acute Kidney Injury in Non-Critically Ill Patients" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 17: 3959. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10173959

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