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Review

Treatment of Adolescents with Concurrent Substance Use Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review

1
Parnassia Addiction Research Centre (PARC), Parnassia Psychiatric Institute, 2512 HN The Hague, The Netherlands
2
Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands
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Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, LWL-University Hospital, Hamm, Ruhr-University Bochum, 44801 Bochum, Germany
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Department of Psychiatry, Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 10, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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Donders Institute for Brain Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 AJ Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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International Collaboration on ADHD and Substance Abuse (ICASA) Foundation, 6500 HE Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University, DK-8210 Aarhus, Denmark
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Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Location Academic Medical Center, 1106 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Simon Zhornitsky
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(17), 3908; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10173908
Received: 25 June 2021 / Revised: 22 August 2021 / Accepted: 26 August 2021 / Published: 30 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention and Treatment of Addictive Disorders)
Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for the development of substance abuse and substance use disorders (SUD) in adolescence and (early) adulthood. ADHD and SUD also frequently co-occur in treatment-seeking adolescents, which complicates diagnosis and treatment, and is associated with poor treatment outcomes. In this study, we provide a systematic review of controlled studies on the effectiveness of pharmacological, psychosocial, and complementary treatments of ADHD in adolescents with and without comorbid SUD. In addition, we review the longitudinal association between pharmacotherapy for childhood ADHD and the development of SUD in adolescence and early adulthood. We conducted a systematic review of the research literature published since 2000 using Medline, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases to select randomized clinical trials, observational studies, and meta-analyses. The quality of the evidence from each study was rated using the SIGN grading system. Based on the limited evidence available, strong clinical recommendations are not justified, but provisionally, we conclude that stimulant treatment in children with ADHD may prevent the development of SUD in adolescence or young adulthood, that high-dose stimulant treatment could be an effective treatment for adolescents with ADHD and SUD comorbidity, that cognitive behavior therapy might have a small beneficial effect in these patients, and that alternative treatments are probably not effective. More studies are needed to draw definitive conclusions that will allow for strong clinical recommendations. View Full-Text
Keywords: review; ADHD; SUD; comorbidity; adolescents; treatment review; ADHD; SUD; comorbidity; adolescents; treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Özgen, H.; Spijkerman, R.; Noack, M.; Holtmann, M.; Schellekens, A.; Dalsgaard, S.; van den Brink, W.; Hendriks, V. Treatment of Adolescents with Concurrent Substance Use Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 3908. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10173908

AMA Style

Özgen H, Spijkerman R, Noack M, Holtmann M, Schellekens A, Dalsgaard S, van den Brink W, Hendriks V. Treatment of Adolescents with Concurrent Substance Use Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(17):3908. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10173908

Chicago/Turabian Style

Özgen, Heval, Renske Spijkerman, Moritz Noack, Martin Holtmann, Arnt Schellekens, Søren Dalsgaard, Wim van den Brink, and Vincent Hendriks. 2021. "Treatment of Adolescents with Concurrent Substance Use Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 17: 3908. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10173908

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