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Review

The Impact of Biomedical Engineering on the Development of Minimally Invasive Cardio-Thoracic Surgery

1
Heart Center, OLVG Hospital, 1091 AC Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
3
LifeTec Group BV, 5611 ZS Eindhoven, The Netherlands
4
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Amsterdam University Medical Center, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bart van Putte
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(17), 3877; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10173877
Received: 13 July 2021 / Revised: 25 August 2021 / Accepted: 26 August 2021 / Published: 28 August 2021
(1) We describe the boundary conditions for minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) with the aim to reduce procedure-related patient injury and discomfort. (2) The analysis of the MICS work process and its demand for improved tools and devices is followed by a description of the relevant sub-specialties of bio-medical engineering: electronics, biomechanics, and materials sciences. (3) Innovations can represent a desired adaptation of an existing work process or a radical redesign of procedure and devices such as in transcutaneous procedures. Focused interaction between engineers, industry, and surgeons is always mandatory (i.e., a therapeutic alliance for addressing ‘unmet patient or professional needs’. (4) Novel techniques in MICS lean heavily on usability and safe and effective use in dedicated hands. Therefore, the use of training and simulation models should enable skills selection, a safe learning curve, and maintenance of proficiency. (5) The critical technical steps and cost–benefit trade-offs during the journey from invention to application will be explained. Business considerations such as time-to-market and returns on investment do shape the cost–benefit room for commercial use of technology. Proof of clinical safety and effectiveness by physicians remains important, but establishing the technical reliability of MICS tools and warranting appropriate surgical skills come first. View Full-Text
Keywords: minimal injury cardiac surgery; biomedical engineering; adaption and redesign; innovation of tools; R&D trade-offs minimal injury cardiac surgery; biomedical engineering; adaption and redesign; innovation of tools; R&D trade-offs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cocchieri, R.; van de Wetering, B.; Stijnen, M.; Riezebos, R.; de Mol, B. The Impact of Biomedical Engineering on the Development of Minimally Invasive Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 3877. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10173877

AMA Style

Cocchieri R, van de Wetering B, Stijnen M, Riezebos R, de Mol B. The Impact of Biomedical Engineering on the Development of Minimally Invasive Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(17):3877. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10173877

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cocchieri, Riccardo, Bertus van de Wetering, Marco Stijnen, Robert Riezebos, and Bastian de Mol. 2021. "The Impact of Biomedical Engineering on the Development of Minimally Invasive Cardio-Thoracic Surgery" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 17: 3877. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10173877

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