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A Cardiovascular Risk Score for Use in Occupational Medicine

Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Federico II University of Naples, 80131 Naples, Italy
Department of Public Health, Federico II University of Naples, 80131 Naples, Italy
Interdepartmental Research Center in Healthcare Management and Innovation in Healthcare (CIRMIS), 80131 Naples, Italy
Augmented Reality for Health Monitoring Laboratory (ARHeMLab), 80131 Naples, Italy
Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte Orientale, 28100 Novara, Italy
Research Center in Emergency and Disaster Medicine, Università del Piemonte Orientale (CRIMEDIM), 28100 Novara, Italy
Department of Public Health, Section of Occupational Medicine, University of Naples Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy
Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Imperial College of London, London W6 8RP, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Venerando Rapisarda
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(13), 2789;
Received: 13 May 2021 / Revised: 15 June 2021 / Accepted: 18 June 2021 / Published: 24 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Medicine)
Cardiovascular disease is one of the most frequent causes of long-term sickness absence from work. The study aims to develop and validate a score to assess the 10-year risk of unsuitability for work accounting for the cardiovascular risk. The score can be considered as a prevention tool that would improve the cardiovascular risk assessment during health surveillance visits under the assumption that a high cardiovascular risk might also translate into high risk of unsuitability for work. A total of 11,079 Italian workers were examined, as part of their scheduled occupational health surveillance. Cox proportional hazards regression models were employed to derive risk equations for assessing the 10-year risk of a diagnosis of unsuitability for work. Two scores were developed: the CROMA score (Cardiovascular Risk in Occupational Medicine) included age, sex, smoking status, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), body mass index, height, diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, mental disorders and prescription of antidiabetic and antihypertensive medications. The CROMB score was the same as CROMA score except for the inclusion of only variables statistically significant at the 0.05 level. For both scores, the expected risk of unsuitability for work was higher for workers in the highest risk class, as compared with the lowest. Moreover results showed a positive association between most of cardiovascular risk factors and the risk of unsuitability for work. The CROMA score demonstrated better calibration than the CROMB score (11.624 (p-value: 0.235)). Moreover, the CROMA score, in comparison with existing CVD risk scores, showed the best goodness of fit and discrimination. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiovascular risk; public health; occupational medicine; work cardiovascular risk; public health; occupational medicine; work
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MDPI and ACS Style

Affinito, G.; Arpaia, P.; Barone-Adesi, F.; Fontana, L.; Palladino, R.; Triassi, M. A Cardiovascular Risk Score for Use in Occupational Medicine. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 2789.

AMA Style

Affinito G, Arpaia P, Barone-Adesi F, Fontana L, Palladino R, Triassi M. A Cardiovascular Risk Score for Use in Occupational Medicine. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(13):2789.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Affinito, Giuseppina, Pasquale Arpaia, Francesco Barone-Adesi, Luca Fontana, Raffaele Palladino, and Maria Triassi. 2021. "A Cardiovascular Risk Score for Use in Occupational Medicine" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 13: 2789.

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