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Open AccessArticle

Flower and Leaf Extracts of Sambucus nigra L.: Application of Membrane Processes to Obtain Fractions with Antioxidant and Antityrosinase Properties

1
Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, I-87036 Rende (Cosenza), Italy
2
Institute on Membrane Technology, Italian National Research Council, ITM-CNR, I-87036 Rende (Cosenza), Italy
3
Department of Agricultural Science, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, I-89123 Reggio Calabria, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Membranes 2019, 9(10), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes9100127
Received: 1 August 2019 / Revised: 19 September 2019 / Accepted: 20 September 2019 / Published: 24 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Membranes for Biomedical and Environmental Applications)
This study aimed at evaluating and comparing the chemical profile as well as the antityrosinase and antioxidant activities of ethanol (EtOH) and methanol (MeOH) extracts of Sambucus nigra L. (Adoxaceae) flowers and leaves in order to discover new candidates for food additives and cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. For this purpose, a novel lower-melting-point ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene (LMP ECTFE) nanofiltration (NF) membrane was employed in order to produce the concentrated fractions of S. nigra. Floral extracts were richer in phytochemicals in comparison to the leaf extracts. The High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profile revealed rutin, quercetin, protocateuchic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and neochlorogenic acid as the most abundant compounds. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2’-diphenil-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging, and 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) tests were used to investigate the antioxidant properties. NF retentate fractions of floral ethanol extracts exerted the highest tyrosinase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 53.9 µg/mL and the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity (IC50 of 46.4 µg/mL). In conclusion, the present investigation revealed the potential benefits of NF application in S. nigra extracts processing, suggesting the use of retentate fractions as a promising source for antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory compounds which could pave the way for future applications View Full-Text
Keywords: Sambucus nigra; flowers; leaves; tyrosinase inhibition; antioxidant activity; OSN; ECTFE Sambucus nigra; flowers; leaves; tyrosinase inhibition; antioxidant activity; OSN; ECTFE
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Tundis, R.; Ursino, C.; Bonesi, M.; Loizzo, M.R.; Sicari, V.; Pellicanò, T.; Manfredi, I.L.; Figoli, A.; Cassano, A. Flower and Leaf Extracts of Sambucus nigra L.: Application of Membrane Processes to Obtain Fractions with Antioxidant and Antityrosinase Properties. Membranes 2019, 9, 127.

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