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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Treated Seawater as a Magnesium Source for Phosphorous Recovery from Wastewater—A Feasibility and Cost Analysis

Department of Chemistry and Bioscience—Section for Chemistry, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers vej 7H, Aalborg Ø 9220, Denmark
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Academic Editor: Bart Van der Bruggen
Membranes 2016, 6(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes6040054
Received: 2 November 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 13 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis)
Conventional resources of phosphorous are at high risk of depletion in the near future due to current practices of its exploitation, thus new and improved exploration methodologies need to be developed to ensure phosphorous security. Today, some treatment plants recover phosphorous from municipal wastewater as struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O). Magnesium is often added to the wastewater as MgCl2·6H2O to facilitate the phosphorous recovery. However, the use of magnesium increases the costs of the process and is not aligned with sustainable development, therefore, alternative magnesium sources have to be found. The current study analyzes the feasibility of integrated membrane processes for magnesium recovery from seawater for utilization in the phosphorous recovery process. The integrated membrane systems consist of nanofiltration (NF), membrane distillation (MD), and membrane crystallization (MCr). The lowest associated cost is found for standalone NF treatment. However, the additional treatment with MD and MCr produces fresh water and salts like NaCl or potentially other valuable minerals at the expense of low-grade heat. View Full-Text
Keywords: resource recovery; integrated membrane systems; nanofiltration; membrane distillation; membrane crystallization resource recovery; integrated membrane systems; nanofiltration; membrane distillation; membrane crystallization
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Quist-Jensen, C.A.; Koustrup Jørgensen, M.; Christensen, M.L. Treated Seawater as a Magnesium Source for Phosphorous Recovery from Wastewater—A Feasibility and Cost Analysis. Membranes 2016, 6, 54.

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