# Clean Energy Based Multigeneration System for Sustainable Cities: Thermodynamic, and Stability Analyses

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

_{2}emission reduction is extensive. Khalid et al. [12], integrated solar and biomass in the multi-generation system, Moradi et al. [13], considered bio-mass gasification only, and Paakkonen and Joronen [14], restudied the feasibility of a biomass-integrated combined heat and power system. Studies in [12,13,14], revealed that biomass and biogas are highly feasible for comprehensive and multi-generation systems with maximum energy and exergy efficiency of 72.5% and 30.44% and can be derived from environmental wastes such as chicken manure [15,16], maize silage [17], rice husk [18], etc. Sevinchan et al. [19], developed a multi-generation system powered by maize silage and chicken manure. Rice husk was hybridized with solar energy to power another multi-generation system developed in the literature [20]. The ammonia and hydrogen productions by their system [20] were 79 g/s and 20 g/s. Solar and wind are also considered the most commonly used RE sources of power, co-generation, and multi-generation. Ozlu and Dincer [21], analyzed a multi-generation system based on solar and wind energy and reported the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of the systems to be 43% and 65%.

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Developing a Schematic Diagram

^{6}used to drive the wind turbine that ultimately drives the generator. The wind turbine gives a power output of 1.033 × 10

^{7}and this power output is used to produce electricity only. The electrolysis process is performed by using heat from the generator to produce H

_{2}and O

_{2}. The remaining heat of the generator is used to drive the vapor compression cycle. The working fluid used in the vapor compression cycle is R410, the compressor operates at 80.83 °C, the condenser operates at 27 °C, expansion valve, and the evaporator operates at −44.84 °C. The vapor compression cycle gives cooling as an output. The heat released by the condenser is absorbed by the heat exchanger. The heat exchanger provides water with the heat to initially increase its temperature to 30 °C. The heat exchangers used for this multigeneration system are parallel flow heat exchangers. This heat is utilized by the boiler. The boiler obtains two sources of heat, one from the heat exchanger and the other from biomass. The desalination plant utilizes the steam of the boiler to give fresh water and brine. Thermal desalination is performed using the boiler. Both the boiler and condenser operate at an atmospheric pressure of 101.325 KPa. Water enters the boiler at around 30 °C and leaves as steam. It is then condensed to around room temperature. The temperatures of fresh water and brine are 27 °C and 25 °C.

#### 2.2. Developing Input Source/Components/Process for the Multigeneration Cycle

#### 2.3. Approach to Analysis

_{des}is found by multiplying the entropy generated with the outside temperature and exergy destruction can be determined. Where Q

_{H}is heat gained, Q

_{L}is heat released, T

_{H}and T

_{L}are the temperatures at the hot and cold source respectively from initial i to final state f as in Equations (1)–(3)

_{2}and oxygen mo

_{2}gas are as follows:

_{wind}is the maximum expected power generated from the wind turbine in Equation (8) while u is the collective efficiency of the wind turbine. Multiplying P

_{wind}with the collective efficiency and Bentz’s efficiency P

_{output}is determined in Equation (10) which is the actual power consumed.

_{out}represents the energy output:

## 3. Results

^{−7}kg/s black line. The mass flow rate of oxygen also increases from 0 to 2.5 × 10

^{−8}kg/s green line.

^{−7}kg/s of hydrogen gas, and 5 × 10

^{−6}kg/s of oxygen gas were obtained from the electrolysis. The Simulink steady state thermodynamic model was built successfully. In addition, tuned PID parameters were obtained for the individual cycles, and the root locus graph was plotted to determine the stability of the thermodynamic cycles.

## 4. Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

- Ahmadi, P.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A. Development and assessment of an integrated biomass-based multi-generation energy system. Energy
**2013**, 56, 155–166. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Ozturk, M.; Dincer, I. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar-based multi-generation system with hydrogen production. Appl. Therm. Eng.
**2013**, 51, 1235–1244. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Dincer, I.; Zamfirescu, C. Renewable-energy-based multigeneration systems. Int. J. Energy Res.
**2012**, 36, 1403–1415. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Cohce, M.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M. Energy and exergy analyses of a biomass-based hydrogen production system. Bioresour. Technol.
**2011**, 102, 8466–8474. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Filho, P.A.; Badr, O. Biomass resources for energy in North-Eastern Brazil. Appl. Energy
**2004**, 77, 51–67. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Hughes, E.E.; Tillman, D.A. Biomass cofiring: Status and prospects 1996. Fuel Process. Technol.
**1998**, 54, 127–142. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Lian, Z.; Chua, K.; Chou, S. A thermoeconomic analysis of biomass energy for trigeneration. Appl. Energy
**2010**, 87, 84–95. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Liu, H.; Shao, Y.; Li, J. A biomass-fired micro-scale CHP system with organic Rankine cycle (ORC)—Thermodynamic modelling studies. Biomass-Bioenergy
**2011**, 35, 3985–3994. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Gnanapragasam, N.V.; Reddy, B.V.; Rosen, M.A. Optimum conditions for a natural gas combined cycle power generation system based on available oxygen when using biomass as supplementary fuel. Energy
**2009**, 34, 816–826. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Al-Sulaiman, F.A.; Dincer, I.; Hamdullahpur, F. Energy and exergy analyses of a biomass trigeneration system using an organic Rankine cycle. Energy
**2012**, 45, 975–985. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Safari, F.; Dincer, I. Development and analysis of a novel biomass-based integrated system for multigeneration with hydrogen production. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
**2019**, 44, 3511–3526. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Khalid, F.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A. Energy and exergy analyses of a solar-biomass integrated cycle for multigeneration. Sol. Energy
**2014**, 112, 290–299. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Moradi, R.; Marcantonio, V.; Cioccolanti, L.; Bocci, E. Integrating biomass gasification with a steam-injected micro gas turbine and an Organic Rankine Cycle unit for combined heat and power production. Energy Convers. Manag.
**2020**, 205, 112464. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Pääkkönen, A.; Joronen, T. Revisiting the feasibility of biomass-fueled CHP in future energy systems—Case study of the Åland Islands. Energy Convers. Manag.
**2019**, 188, 66–75. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Dalkilic, K.; Ugurlu, A. Biogas production from chicken manure at different organic loading rates in a mesophilic-thermopilic two stage anaerobic system. J. Biosci. Bioeng.
**2015**, 120, 315–322. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Yin, D.-M.; Qiao, W.; Negri, C.; Adani, F.; Fan, R.; Dong, R.-J. Enhancing hyper-thermophilic hydrolysis pre-treatment of chicken manure for biogas production by in-situ gas phase ammonia stripping. Bioresour. Technol.
**2019**, 287, 121470. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Feng, L.; Ward, A.J.; Guixé, P.G.; Moset, V.; Møller, H.B. Flexible biogas production by pulse feeding maize silage or briquetted meadow grass into continuous stirred tank reactors. Biosyst. Eng.
**2018**, 174, 239–248. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Okeh, O.C.; Onwosi, C.O.; Odibo, F.J.C. Biogas production from rice husks generated from various rice mills in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Renew. Energy
**2014**, 62, 204–208. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Sevinchan, E.; Dincer, I.; Lang, H. Energy and exergy analyses of a biogas driven multigenerational system. Energy
**2018**, 166, 715–723. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Siddiqui, O.; Dincer, I.; Yilbas, B. Development of a novel renewable energy system integrated with biomass gasification combined cycle for cleaner production purposes. J. Clean. Prod.
**2019**, 241, 118345. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Ehyaei, M.; Ahmadi, A.; Rosen, M.A. Energy, exergy, economic and advanced and extended exergy analyses of a wind turbine. Energy Convers. Manag.
**2019**, 183, 369–381. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Mohammadi, A.; Ahmadi, M.H.; Bidi, M.; Joda, F.; Valero, A.; Uson, S. Exergy analysis of a Combined Cooling, Heating and Power system integrated with wind turbine and compressed air energy storage system. Energy Convers. Manag.
**2017**, 131, 69–78. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Fakehi, A.H.; Ahmadi, S.; Mirghaed, M.R. Optimization of operating parameters in a hybrid wind–hydrogen system using energy and exergy analysis: Modeling and case study. Energy Convers. Manag.
**2015**, 106, 1318–1326. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Air-Density vs. Pressure and Temperatures. Available online: https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/air-temperature-pressure-density-d_771.html (accessed on 14 February 2023).
- Samah, E. Measuring Small-Scale Biogas Capacity and Production; International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA): Masdar City, United Arab Emirates, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Kalinci, Y.; Hepbasli, A.; Dincer, I. Exergoeconomic analysis and performance assessment of hydrogen and power production using different gasification systems. Fuel
**2012**, 102, 187–198. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Cengel, Y.A.; Boles, M.A.; Kanoğlu, M. Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach; McGraw-Hill: New York, NY, USA, 2011; Volume 5. [Google Scholar]
- AbdulKareem, M. Experimental Investigation and Mathematical Modelling of Pressure Transfer Function for Air Compressor. Int. J. Eng. Technol.
**2018**, 7, 950. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Amin; Bambang, R.T.; Rohman, A.S.; Dronkers, C.J.; Ortega, R.; Sasongko, A. Energy Management of Fuel Cell/Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid Power Sources Using Model Predictive Control. IEEE Trans. Ind. Informatics
**2014**, 10, 1992–2002. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Chaudhry, Q.Z. An investigation on wind power potential of Gharo-Sindh, Pakistan. Pak. J. Meteorol.
**2009**, 6, 5–9. [Google Scholar] - Calculating the Mass of Hydrogen Produced in a Cell. Available online: https://www.nagwa.com/en/videos/890136320897/ (accessed on 14 February 2023).

**Figure 11.**Effect of the velocity of the air on exergetic efficiency of the air-conditioning cycle, heat pump, refrigeration cycle, and overall exergetic efficiency.

**Figure 12.**Effect of number of cows on exergetic efficiency of the desalination plant, water-treatment plant, and overall exergetic efficiency.

**Figure 13.**Effect of the velocity of the air on COP of heat pump, refrigeration cycle, and air-conditioning cycle.

Parameter Value of Multigeneration System | |
---|---|

Wind turbine | |

Velocity of the air (V) | 8 m/s [24] |

Density of the air (p) | 1.20 kg/m^{3} [24] |

Electrical losses | 1% |

Electricity transmission losses | 1.25% |

Mechanical losses | 3% |

Wake losses | 5% |

Biogas production | |

Waste disposal of cow manure per day | 20 kg [25] |

Volatile solid cow manure per day | 1.42 kg [25] |

Yield factor | 5.5 [25] |

Electrolysis | |

Voltage for electrolysis (V) | 2 V |

Energy of hydrogen gas at r.t.p | 116648 kJ/k [26] |

Energy of oxygen gas at r.t.p | 24.68 kJ /kg [26] |

Faraday’s constant | 96485 |

Vapor compression cycle | |

Ambient temperature (To) | 25 °C |

Compressor isentropic efficiency (n) | 0.85 |

Refrigeration cycle low pressure side (Prc) | 140 kPa [27] |

Heat pump low pressure side (Php) | 140 kPa [27] |

Air conditioner low pressure side (Pac) | 400 kPa |

Refrigerant used for vapor compression | R410a |

Mass flow rate of refrigeration cycle (mrc) | 14 kg/s |

Mass flow rate of the heat pump (mhp) | 15 kg/s |

Mass flow rate of the air conditioner (mac) | 19 kg/s |

Mass H_{2}/Power Input/Power Output | Exergy Efficiency | Source | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Present | Published | Difference | Present | Published | Difference | ||

Vapor Compression Cycle | 1.81 | 1.82 | 0.5% | 56% | 56% | 0.0% | [27] |

Wind Power | 8100 | 7792 | 4.0% | 0.8607 | 0.845 | 1.8% | [30] |

Biogas Production | 9430 | 9391 | 0.4% | N/A | N/A | N/A | [25] |

Electrolysis | 0.06561 | 0.06562 | 0.015% | 0.6054 | 0.6055 | 0.017% | [31] |

Desalination | N/A | N/A | N/A | N/A | N/A | N/A | [26] |

Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content. |

© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Bhatti, U.; Aamir, H.; Kamal, K.; Ratlamwala, T.A.H.; Alqahtani, F.; Alkahtani, M.; Mohammad, E.; Alatefi, M.
Clean Energy Based Multigeneration System for Sustainable Cities: Thermodynamic, and Stability Analyses. *Membranes* **2023**, *13*, 358.
https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13030358

**AMA Style**

Bhatti U, Aamir H, Kamal K, Ratlamwala TAH, Alqahtani F, Alkahtani M, Mohammad E, Alatefi M.
Clean Energy Based Multigeneration System for Sustainable Cities: Thermodynamic, and Stability Analyses. *Membranes*. 2023; 13(3):358.
https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13030358

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Bhatti, Uzair, Hamza Aamir, Khurram Kamal, Tahir Abdul Hussain Ratlamwala, Fahad Alqahtani, Mohammed Alkahtani, Emad Mohammad, and Moath Alatefi.
2023. "Clean Energy Based Multigeneration System for Sustainable Cities: Thermodynamic, and Stability Analyses" *Membranes* 13, no. 3: 358.
https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13030358