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Article

Modified Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Membranes for the Elimination of Antibiotics from Water

1
Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the CAS, v.v.i., Rozvojova 135, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
2
Institute for Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Benátská 2, 128 01 Prague, Czech Republic
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IC2MP UMR 7285 CNRS, University of Poitiers, 4 rue Michel Brunet, CEDEX 9, 86022 Poitiers, France
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Departments of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6, Czech Republic
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The Department of Desalination & Water Treatment, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva P.O. Box 653, Israel
6
Departments of Physical Chemistry, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Efrem Curcio
Membranes 2021, 11(9), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11090720
Received: 26 August 2021 / Revised: 10 September 2021 / Accepted: 15 September 2021 / Published: 21 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the MELPRO 2020)
The hydrophilic and hydrophobic single-walled carbon nanotube membranes were prepared and progressively applied in sorption, filtration, and pertraction experiments with the aim of eliminating three antibiotics—tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim—as a single pollutant or as a mixture. The addition of SiO2 to the single-walled carbon nanotubes allowed a transparent study of the influence of porosity on the separation processes. The mild oxidation, increasing hydrophilicity, and reactivity of the single-walled carbon nanotube membranes with the pollutants were suitable for the filtration and sorption process, while non-oxidized materials with a hydrophobic layer were more appropriate for pertraction. The total pore volume increased with an increasing amount of SiO2 (from 743 to 1218 mm3/g) in the hydrophilic membranes. The hydrophobic layer completely covered the carbon nanotubes and SiO2 nanoparticles and provided significantly different membrane surface interactions with the antibiotics. Single-walled carbon nanotubes adsorbed the initial amount of antibiotics in less than 5 h. A time of 2.3 s was sufficient for the filtration of 98.8% of sulfamethoxazole, 95.5% of trimethoprim, and 87.0% of tetracycline. The thicker membranes demonstrate a higher adsorption capacity. However, the pertraction was slower than filtration, leading to total elimination of antibiotics (e.g., 3 days for tetracycline). The diffusion coefficient of the antibiotics varies between 0.7–2.7 × 10−10, depending on the addition of SiO2 in perfect agreement with the findings of the textural analysis and scanning electron microscopy observations. Similar to filtration, tetracycline is retained by the membranes more than sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon nanotube membranes; polymer; antibiotics; pertraction carbon nanotube membranes; polymer; antibiotics; pertraction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gaálová, J.; Bourassi, M.; Soukup, K.; Trávníčková, T.; Bouša, D.; Sundararajan, S.; Losada, O.; Kasher, R.; Friess, K.; Sofer, Z. Modified Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Membranes for the Elimination of Antibiotics from Water. Membranes 2021, 11, 720. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11090720

AMA Style

Gaálová J, Bourassi M, Soukup K, Trávníčková T, Bouša D, Sundararajan S, Losada O, Kasher R, Friess K, Sofer Z. Modified Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Membranes for the Elimination of Antibiotics from Water. Membranes. 2021; 11(9):720. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11090720

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gaálová, Jana, Mahdi Bourassi, Karel Soukup, Tereza Trávníčková, Daniel Bouša, Swati Sundararajan, Olga Losada, Roni Kasher, Karel Friess, and Zdeněk Sofer. 2021. "Modified Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Membranes for the Elimination of Antibiotics from Water" Membranes 11, no. 9: 720. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11090720

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