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Open AccessArticle

Assessing the Performance of Thin-Film Nanofiltration Membranes with Embedded Montmorillonites

1
R&D Center for Membrane Technology and Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taoyuan 32023, Taiwan
2
School of Chemical, Biological, and Materials Engineering and Sciences, Mapúa University, Manila 1002, Philippines
3
Industrial Technology Development Institute, Department of Science and Technology, DOST Compound, Taguig City 1631, Philippines
4
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Ilan University, Yilan 26047, Taiwan
5
Applied Research Center for Thin-Film Metallic Glass, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan
6
Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Technology, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Membranes 2020, 10(5), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10050079
Received: 25 March 2020 / Revised: 20 April 2020 / Accepted: 21 April 2020 / Published: 26 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes: 10th Anniversary)
In this study, the basal spacing of montmorillonite (MMT) was modified through ion exchange. Two kinds of MMT were used: sodium-modified MMT (Na-MMT) and organo-modified MMT (O-MMT). These two particles were incorporated separately into the thin-film nanocomposite polyamide membrane through the interfacial polymerization of piperazine and trimesoyl chloride in n-hexane. The membrane with O-MMT (TFNO-MMT) has a more hydrophilic surface compared to that of membrane with Na-MMT (TFNNa-MMT). When various types of MMT were dispersed in the n-hexane solution with trimesoyl chloride (TMC), O-MMT was well-dispersed than Na-MMT. The poor dispersion of Na-MMT in n-hexane led to the aggregation of Na-MMT on the surface of TFNNa-MMT. TFNO-MMT displayed a uniform distribution of O-MMT on the surface, because O-MMT was well-dispersed in n-hexane. In comparison with the pristine and TFNNa-MMT membranes, TFNO-MMT delivered the highest pure water flux of 53.15 ± 3.30 L∙m−2∙h−1 at 6 bar, while its salt rejection for divalent ions remained at 95%–99%. Furthermore, it had stable performance in wide operating condition, and it exhibited a magnificent antifouling property. Therefore, a suitable type of MMT could lead to high separation efficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: montmorillonite; polyamide; thin-film nanocomposite; membrane separation; nanofiltration montmorillonite; polyamide; thin-film nanocomposite; membrane separation; nanofiltration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ang, M.B.M.Y.; Deang, A.B.G.; Aquino, R.R.; Basilia, B.A.; Huang, S.-H.; Lee, K.-R.; Lai, J.-Y. Assessing the Performance of Thin-Film Nanofiltration Membranes with Embedded Montmorillonites. Membranes 2020, 10, 79.

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