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Review

Plant-Based COVID-19 Vaccines: Current Status, Design, and Development Strategies of Candidate Vaccines

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G+FLAS Life Sciences, 123 Uiryodanji-gil, Osong-eup, Heungdeok-gu, Cheongju-si 28161, Korea
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G+FLAS Life Sciences, 38 Nakseongdae-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08790, Korea
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School of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Claudia Sardu
Vaccines 2021, 9(9), 992; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9090992
Received: 23 July 2021 / Revised: 27 August 2021 / Accepted: 31 August 2021 / Published: 6 September 2021
The prevalence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in its second year has led to massive global human and economic losses. The high transmission rate and the emergence of diverse SARS-CoV-2 variants demand rapid and effective approaches to preventing the spread, diagnosing on time, and treating affected people. Several COVID-19 vaccines are being developed using different production systems, including plants, which promises the production of cheap, safe, stable, and effective vaccines. The potential of a plant-based system for rapid production at a commercial scale and for a quick response to an infectious disease outbreak has been demonstrated by the marketing of carrot-cell-produced taliglucerase alfa (Elelyso) for Gaucher disease and tobacco-produced monoclonal antibodies (ZMapp) for the 2014 Ebola outbreak. Currently, two plant-based COVID-19 vaccine candidates, coronavirus virus-like particle (CoVLP) and Kentucky Bioprocessing (KBP)-201, are in clinical trials, and many more are in the preclinical stage. Interim phase 2 clinical trial results have revealed the high safety and efficacy of the CoVLP vaccine, with 10 times more neutralizing antibody responses compared to those present in a convalescent patient’s plasma. The clinical trial of the CoVLP vaccine could be concluded by the end of 2021, and the vaccine could be available for public immunization thereafter. This review encapsulates the efforts made in plant-based COVID-19 vaccine development, the strategies and technologies implemented, and the progress accomplished in clinical trials and preclinical studies so far. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19 vaccine; SARS-CoV-2; plant-based vaccine; VLP; subunit vaccine; clinical trial; Nicotiana benthamaiana; RBD; spike protein; glycoengineering COVID-19 vaccine; SARS-CoV-2; plant-based vaccine; VLP; subunit vaccine; clinical trial; Nicotiana benthamaiana; RBD; spike protein; glycoengineering
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MDPI and ACS Style

Maharjan, P.M.; Choe, S. Plant-Based COVID-19 Vaccines: Current Status, Design, and Development Strategies of Candidate Vaccines. Vaccines 2021, 9, 992. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9090992

AMA Style

Maharjan PM, Choe S. Plant-Based COVID-19 Vaccines: Current Status, Design, and Development Strategies of Candidate Vaccines. Vaccines. 2021; 9(9):992. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9090992

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maharjan, Puna M., and Sunghwa Choe. 2021. "Plant-Based COVID-19 Vaccines: Current Status, Design, and Development Strategies of Candidate Vaccines" Vaccines 9, no. 9: 992. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9090992

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