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Article

Fear of COVID-19 and Perceived COVID-19 Infectability Supplement Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Iranians’ Intention to Get COVID-19 Vaccinated

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Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin 3419759811, Iran
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Institute of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
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Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
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Department of Public Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
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Department of Nursing, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, SE-55111 Jönköping, Sweden
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Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Linköping University Hospital, SE-58183 Linköping, Sweden
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International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG1 4FQ, UK
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Tiziana Ramaci, Massimiliano Barattucci and Ralph A. Tripp
Vaccines 2021, 9(7), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9070684
Received: 5 May 2021 / Revised: 17 June 2021 / Accepted: 19 June 2021 / Published: 22 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
One of the most efficient methods to control the high infection rate of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is to have a high coverage of COVID-19 vaccination worldwide. Therefore, it is important to understand individuals’ intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. The present study applied the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to explain the intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated among a representative sample in Qazvin, Iran. The TPB uses psychological constructs of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control to explain an individual’s intention to perform a behavior. Fear and perceived infectability were additionally incorporated into the TPB to explain the intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. Utilizing multistage stratified cluster sampling, 10,843 participants (4092 males; 37.7%) with a mean age of 35.54 years (SD = 12.00) completed a survey. The survey assessed TPB constructs (including attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention related to COVID-19 vaccination) together with fear of COVID-19 and perceived COVID-19 infectability. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was performed to examine whether fear of COVID-19, perceived infectability, and the TPB constructs explained individuals’ intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. The SEM demonstrated satisfactory fit (comparative fit index = 0.970; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.962; root mean square error of approximation = 0.040; standardized root mean square residual = 0.050). Moreover, perceived behavioral control, subjective norm, attitude, and perceived COVID-19 infectability significantly explained individuals’ intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. Perceived COVID-19 infectability and TPB constructs were all significant mediators in the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. Incorporating fear of COVID-19 and perceived COVID-19 infectability effectively into the TPB explained Iranians’ intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated. Therefore, Iranians who have a strong belief in Muslim religion may improve their intention to get COVID-19 vaccinated via these constructs. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; fear; Iran; perceived infectability; theory of planned behavior; vaccine COVID-19; fear; Iran; perceived infectability; theory of planned behavior; vaccine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yahaghi, R.; Ahmadizade, S.; Fotuhi, R.; Taherkhani, E.; Ranjbaran, M.; Buchali, Z.; Jafari, R.; Zamani, N.; Shahbazkhania, A.; Simiari, H.; Rahmani, J.; Yazdi, N.; Alijani, H.; Poorzolfaghar, L.; Rajabi, F.; Lin, C.-Y.; Broström, A.; Griffiths, M.D.; Pakpour, A.H. Fear of COVID-19 and Perceived COVID-19 Infectability Supplement Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Iranians’ Intention to Get COVID-19 Vaccinated. Vaccines 2021, 9, 684. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9070684

AMA Style

Yahaghi R, Ahmadizade S, Fotuhi R, Taherkhani E, Ranjbaran M, Buchali Z, Jafari R, Zamani N, Shahbazkhania A, Simiari H, Rahmani J, Yazdi N, Alijani H, Poorzolfaghar L, Rajabi F, Lin C-Y, Broström A, Griffiths MD, Pakpour AH. Fear of COVID-19 and Perceived COVID-19 Infectability Supplement Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Iranians’ Intention to Get COVID-19 Vaccinated. Vaccines. 2021; 9(7):684. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9070684

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yahaghi, Rafat, Safie Ahmadizade, Razie Fotuhi, Elham Taherkhani, Mehdi Ranjbaran, Zeinab Buchali, Robabe Jafari, Narges Zamani, Azam Shahbazkhania, Hengame Simiari, Jalal Rahmani, Nahid Yazdi, Hashem Alijani, Leila Poorzolfaghar, Fatemeh Rajabi, Chung-Ying Lin, Anders Broström, Mark D. Griffiths, and Amir H. Pakpour. 2021. "Fear of COVID-19 and Perceived COVID-19 Infectability Supplement Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Iranians’ Intention to Get COVID-19 Vaccinated" Vaccines 9, no. 7: 684. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9070684

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